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Dr. Stephanie Thum, 2024

Entangled: A Phenomenological Study of U.S. Federal Government International Trade Administrative Leaders’ Lived Experiences With Red Tape

This study explored how 10 non-elected U.S. government administrative leaders with extremely complex global leadership roles describe their experiences with red tape at work. Many people intuitively understand red tape as a metaphor associated with hassle in their interactions with government. Red tape also comes with a scholarly theory that centers on arcane, costly, and burdensome processes and rules that consume an organization’s resources but serve no necessary purpose. Thirty years of research connects red tape and its related concepts of burden, regulation, and sludge to inefficiency and negative human experiences. Quantitative evidence shows red tape persists. Therefore, one might presume administrative leaders wish to tackle red tape. After all, government administrative leaders are supposed to work in customer-minded, serviceoriented ways. However, red tape can also serve a protective purpose and administrative leaders must also protect taxpayer interests. A leadership challenge emerges when one considers leader success is based on program uptake, but red tape can keep eligible people from participating in government. Scholars continually discuss whether political or elected leaders are mainly responsible for red tape. One voice that has been missing in scholarship is that of administrative leaders themselves and how they experience red tape in their jobs. This study aimed to fill that gap. Four themes surfaced: boundary-spanning, pragmatism in leading, risk-based leadership choices, and most-cited red tape origination points. Ultimately, this research may inform leadership development decisions and customer and employee experience policies in government administration, thereby contributing to more efficient government services for all.

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Dr. Christopher D. Logan, 2024

The Lived Work Experiences of African American/Black Male Full-time Faculty at Midwestern Community Colleges

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived work experiences of African American/Black male full-time faculty at Midwestern community colleges. Narrative inquiry was used as the design in this study. The data reflects the national statistics indicating the low number of African/American Black male full-time faculty employed at community colleges in the Midwestern region of the United States. The focus of the study is how implicit bias, explicit bias/racism, and stereotyping manifest themselves in day-to-day interactions amongst faculty, administrators, students, and the overall environment within community colleges. The study participants were selected based on gender, ethnicity, community college classification (i.e. rural, urban, or suburban), age range, and years of service. The method of data collection used in this study was through semi-structured interviews, and field notes. Critical race theory (CRT) was utilized as the theoretical framework. CRT explores culture and society, in relation to power, law, and race (Dixson, & Rousseau Anderson, 2018; Price, 2010). CRT is based on “an assumption that racism is not a series of isolated acts, but an epidemic in American life, deeply ingrained legally, culturally, and even psychologically” and offers a “a challenge to traditional claims of neutrality, objectivity, colorblindness, and meritocracy as camouflages for the self-interest of dominant groups in American society” (Job, 2009, p. 83).

The inquiry into this research phenomenon is based on the existence of fear and frustration with African American/Black male full-time faculty members at these institutions of higher education. The results of this study may be beneficial as a future guide to institutions of higher education that seek to implement practices that will help them become more viable global entities.

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Dr. Stephen J. Shoda, 2024

Moral Imagination in Aerospace Risk Decision Making: “Houston, We’ve Had a Problem!”

The global aerospace industry performs countless risk decisions every day. These decisions are generally mundane and their correctness trusted upon by stakeholders. As in any human endeavor, there have been several aerospace tragedies. As the industry expands globally, the risk potential for poor decision outcomes expands. Applied global leadership research may provide insights for risk reduction. This applied research study, utilizing Patricia Werhane’s (2008) business ethics theory of moral imagination, synergizes her moral managerial decision-making theory with contextual intelligence model (Kutz, 2017), triune ethics meta-theory (Narvaez, 2016), and responsible leadership theory (Miska & Mendenhall, 2018). Additionally, an understanding of moral virtues was derived from Pine (2022) as a guide for deconstructing moral content from the participants; lived experiences. This multidisciplinary approach holistically combined the theories to reach a deeper understanding of aerospace risk decision-making. The theoretical framework may serve as a basis for other research into moral imagination. A phenomenological research methodology (Creswell & Poth, 2018), informed by the descriptive phenomenological design in psychology (Giorgi, 2009), evaluated moral imagination from a global leadership research perspective. Eight participants provided lived experiences. Eight themes emerged from the analysis. The themes for aerospace leaders from this research were a) safety first, b) issues need identified and addressed in their earliest stages, c) compliance needs achieved while operations need kept moving, d) organizations need viewed as a work in progress, e) discordant moral and ethical behaviors often emerge during problem solving, f) use facts and data when developing solutions and courses of planned action, g) aerospace leaders embody a personal conviction for others safety, and h) aerospace leaders must establish and consistently practice their moral codes. It is intended that the outcomes of this study are useful for applied research in moral imagination and informing recommendations for global aerospace policies on risk decision making. 

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Dr. Scott Schaller, 2024

A Case Study Exploring the Influence of Education Agents on Indian Students Pursuing Master’s Programs at Universities in the United States

International student recruitment has become a major priority for universities, especially in the United States. With an uptick in international student enrollment expected, higher education institutions are having to compete for international students on a global scale. The current study explores the influence of education agents on Indian students pursuing their master’s degrees from universities in the United States. This study is guided by a theoretical framework comprised of the push-pull theory, model of student choice, and the college choice process model. Through a case study design, the analysis of semi-structured interviews revealed how participants perceived the influence of education agents during the search phase, while on campus, and when it came to further understanding the U.S. culture. This led to the development of two core themes that revealed Indian students perceived education agents as integral resources and were beneficial but with some shortcomings. Universities could use the findings of the current study to help advance the effectiveness of their international student recruitment efforts by communicating additional support for education agents and international students. The study’s findings help advance global leadership by expanding knowledge of the influence that education agents have on international students’ understanding of U.S. culture and capturing universities’ ability to support international recruitment objectives.

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Dr. Deirdre Hendersen, 2023

A Narrative Inquiry into the Influence of a Global Mindset of Women in Leadership in Black Greek Letter Sororities

The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women leaders in Black Greek Letter sororities and how a global mindset informed their leadership. Data collection was conducted using one-on-one interviews. This study provides suggestions on how global leadership and developing a global mindset can enhance opportunities for the organization to expand globally. This study will hopefully influence the conversation about the lack of research on the role of leadership in Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLO). The emphasis on global leadership and global mindset of BGLO leaders can have a positive impact on its members and other stakeholders. Followership and transformational leadership theories were the theoretical frameworks employed to guide this study. The following themes and sub-themes emerged from the data: (a) challenges, (b) leadership, (c) follower, (d) education and sub-themes (1) transformation, (2) global mindset. This research hopefully provides a platform for addressing major gaps on women’s leadership and the benefits of serving in Black Greek Letter Sororities.

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Dr. Jeffrey H. Witte, 2023

Leadership Practices That Promote the Delivery of Customer Satisfaction With Police Services in a Diverse, Multicultural Environment: A Case Study Through the Perspective of Distributed Leadership

A qualitative case study with the Yonkers (New York) Police Department utilized semi-structured interviews and a review of relevant documents and media. Yonkers is one of the most diverse cities in the state and the region, with 31% of residents foreign-born, 46% of households speaking a foreign language, and a school district comprised of students from 100 different cultures and nationalities. Theoretical thematic analysis identified interactions between leaders, followers, and situations that contributed to delivering customer satisfaction and procedural justice. Themes determined through data analysis are: (a) A positive tone and supportive environment from police and city leaders promotes the delivery of customer satisfaction by police officers, (b) Peer officer interaction is the strongest influence in promoting the delivery of customer satisfaction by police officers, (c) Police and city leaders are conduits for gathering information from customers and disseminating it to the police officers who deliver service to the customers, (d) A synthesis of departmental activities, policies, and tools (technology) promotes the delivery of customer satisfaction by police officers, and (e) A variety of departmental performance measures ensure (or promote) the delivery of customer satisfaction by police officers. In addition to identifying interactions within the leader-follower-situation framework, the study led to the creation of a revised model of distributed leadership, which more accurately represents the structure of police agencies. While the study is limited by a relatively small sample size, it demonstrates the viability of the distributed leadership model in understanding how leadership practices evolve within police agencies. The distributed leadership framework provides police leaders with a new way of looking at departmental dynamics and allows them to better understand how and why police officers perform in accomplishing department goals and objectives, so that productive interactions can be fostered, expanded upon, and rewarded.

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Dr. Nikki Pham, 2023

Cultivating Global Leaders: A Critical Examination of the Mediating Role of Campus Climate in Asian American College Student Leadership Development

The disparity between Asian Americans’ high level degree attainment and underrepresentation in executive offices suggests that Asian American college students are achieving academically, but somewhere along the journey from college to career they are missing the connections that will transform them into global leaders. In order to prepare Asian American college students to ascend to positions of global leadership, it is imperative that collegiate student leadership development programming is informed by an understanding of how experiences with racism influence the student leadership development process. This mixed methods study addressed gaps in higher education and global leadership studies by furthering understanding of the collegiate experiences and perceptions of the diverse and complex Asian American college student population, and by examining how critical approaches to the statistical analysis of quantitative Asian American college student experience data may provide further insight into their experiences and leadership development process. The findings from this three-part study showed that: (1) campus climate partially mediated the relationship between student experiences and leadership outcomes for Asian American college students, (2) there was not an association between racism-related stress and leadership self-efficacy for Asian American college students, and (3) Asian American college students perceive or experienced racial stress in their college experiences and that Asian American college students’ leadership self-concept was informed by perceptions or experiences with racial stress in their college experiences.

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Dr. Melissa Roberts, 2023

Courageous Followership in Student Affairs: An Exploration of Women Serving in Dual Roles as Leaders and Followers

Higher education within the U.S. has become increasingly complex over the past few decades. In a field where the majority of those working within student affairs departments are women, there is little research on the experiences of women serving in these roles. More specifically, there is little research on women serving in dual roles as leaders and followers while working with international students. This study explored the lived experiences of women existing in dual roles as leaders and followers within complex higher education student affairs environments while working with international students. The study sought to provide currently absent insight into the experiences of women working in such complex environments with multicultural student populations, which may assist other women as they navigate their roles working with similarly diverse student populations. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of courageous followership (Chaleff, 2009) and Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs. The central research question that guided this qualitative study was: How do women in dual roles of leader and follower describe their experiences as courageous followers in complex higher education student affairs environments while working with international students? The following themes emerged from the research findings: (1) creating community and contributing to increased intercultural awareness for the global good; (2) advocating for and centering students who may not have a voice or seat at the table; (3) changing staff roles in light of the global pandemic, external climate shifts, and the international student population needs; and (4) maintaining awareness of current world events in order to empathize and best support international students.

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Dr. Keith Wallace, 2023

A Phenomenological Study Exploring U.S College Students’ Study Abroad Experiences: Understanding Self-Leadership Through Initiators and Outcomes of Transformative Learning

As globalized industries evolve, leaders of today and tomorrow will need multifaceted skills for multilayered engagement in an international environment. One method to develop competencies built for a global setting is study abroad, where U.S. colleges embed students in a travel context beyond classroom walls and borders. Study abroad is made up of pre-departure, in-destination, and reentry that remains less understood across U.S. colleges yet may produce a transformative learning experience. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of U.S. college study abroad students during the reentry phase. Specifically, this study sought to understand initiators and outcomes of transformative learning in selfleadership development after studying abroad. The following 10 deductive themes and two deductive subthemes emerged: (a) Lacking languages in the United States, (b) Viewing my world in a new lens, (c) Realizing a great sense of empowerment, (d) Catching the travel bug, (e) Seeking transformative lessons, (f) Open mindedness through experiential learning, (g) More inclusivity for a diversified community, (h) Going global for new professional practices, (i) Increased capacity for complexity, and (j) Understanding complexity eases pressure. The two subthemes were (a) Leading with a shifted worldview and (b) Refining leadership with a new worldview. Disorientation profiles were also created for each participant. Findings revealed that initiators of transformative learning took place through disorienting experiences as well as transformative outcomes were realized by students after reentry. The findings of the study have identified for the first time in research the developed frameworks of transformative learning theory, the disorientation index and typology of transformative outcomes, as a functional combined tool to understand initiators and outcomes of transformative learning. These findings may assist international educators, multinational businesses, and global leaders of today and tomorrow.

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Dr. Marcus McChristian, 2023

A Qualitative Study Exploring the Cultural Adaptation of U.S. Diplomatic Leaders Working in Africa

The United States government relies upon diplomatic leaders to promote and protect the interest of U.S. citizens all over the world. To successfully carry out these duties, diplomatic leaders are required to establish, build, and maintain relationships with individuals who often have different beliefs, standards, and opinions about how policies and decisions are made. U.S. diplomatic leaders must be able to integrate themselves culturally while managing unavoidable conflict. This study provides information about diplomatic leaders’ conflict management style choices while working in Africa, the most culturally diverse continent in the world. Diplomatic leaders’ ability to integrate into these new cultures and manage conflict while working in African environments often determines their capability to successfully lead host-country nationals and work with local government officials to accomplish U.S. foreign policy agenda.

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Dissertation Archive

2022

Dr. Philip Smith, 2022

Bahamian Police Leadership and Organizational Culture through a Transformational Leadership Lens

Bahamian leadership throughout history has needed to create a culture of efficiency at fighting global crime (United States Embassy Nassau, 2014). The purpose of this inductive qualitative case study was to understand the organizational culture of the Bahamian Police force as attendees of the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) leadership training. This study explored the organizational culture of participants who graduated from ILEA training and non-attendees. This study explored how leaders within the Royal Bahamian Police force (RBPF) may have influenced organizational traditions and practices. This study employed an inductive qualitative case study methodology that utilized purposive non-probability sampling.Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions provided the narrative data while the ILEA training module and RBPF website provided the supporting evidence. The interview questions explored participant perceptions of leadership behaviors within the RBPF. This study applied a transformational leadership theory lens to describe the Royal Bahamian police organizational culture. Findings revealed that the RBPF leaders had created change within their organizational culture to reflect transformational leadership theory.

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Dr. Katie Parrish, 2022

Mainstream Preservice Teachers Perceived Readiness in Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Educate English Learners

This study investigated how mainstream preservice teachers in educator preparation programs (EPPs) in the State of Indiana feel they are ready to meet the growing EL population’s needs. Further, the study investigated how EPP faculty perceive the readiness to educate ELs of the mainstream preservice teachers they prepare. Additionally, this study compared how mainstream preservice teachers and EPP faculty perceive the readiness to educate ELs in knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Using a quantitative, nonexperimental comparative approach, this study explicitly describes how mainstream preservice teachers perceive their readiness to educate ELs’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Past literature supports the increase in the EL population, the achievement gap between ELs and their non-EL peers, and a despairing representation of mainstream teachers who hold EL certification to support the academic growth of this increasing population of learners. The results of this study identify the perception of readiness of mainstream preservice teachers and the perception of readiness as evaluated by EPP faculty for the mainstream preservice teachers they prepare in knowledge, skills, and dispositions to educate ELs. Overall, the results showed that mainstream preservice teachers and EPP faculty do not perceive the mainstream preservice teachers ready to educate ELs. The results were the same for the areas of knowledge, skills, and dispositions. The current findings, grounded in the complexity leadership theory, support the notion that EPPs are complex adaptive systems and must respond to the need to integrate EL coursework throughout educator preparation programs to prepare mainstream preservice teachers to educate ELs effectively upon program completion.

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Dr. Priscilla Deleon, 2022

A Case Study of Global Leadership in Allied Health: Supporting the Enhancement of Employees’ Engagement and Job Satisfaction

Global allied health leaders play a key role in promoting health and wellbeing for their employees. This study contributes to exploring how global leaders in allied health support employees’ job satisfaction and levels of engagement. This study used a qualitative methodology, employing a case study research design to explore servant leadership and allied health leaders; specifically, whether servant leadership plays a role in job satisfaction and employee engagement. The main component of the theoretical framework used for this study was Greenleaf’s (1970) servant leadership. The findings of this study offered five themes that emerged from the data: importance of leadership, listening and communication, building teams to be successful, job satisfaction and making a difference on the job, and professional development increases job satisfaction. The results of this study may create an opportunity for global allied health leaders to explore whether the characteristics of a servant leader can support employee engagement and job satisfaction in allied health fields

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Dr. Saju Alex, 2022

A Phenomenological Study Exploring Global IT Companies in India: Lessons of Experiences on Sustainability

This qualitative study aimed to understand how sustainability leaders in India’s Information Technology (IT) industry perceived the sustainability leader development phenomenon. The four concepts constructed the theoretical framework for the study were: (1) leadership development, (2) sustainability, (3) values-based leadership, and (4) moral development. In addition, the study was framed by a constructivist paradigm, utilizing descriptive phenomenological methodology. The purposeful sampling criteria outlined by Moustakas (1994) were used for participant selection. Ten participants who worked in senior-level management positions at different IT companies and had experience in sustainability ranging from four to eleven years were selected. The data was collected through informal and interactive interviews using open-ended questions.The data were analyzed according to the transcendental phenomenological analysis processes Moustakas (1994) recommended. As a result, seven themes emerged from the participants’ textural descriptions of how they experienced the phenomenon: (1) leadership development, (2) workforce/professional development, (3) global competitiveness, (4) vision and values, (4) sustainability strategies/development, (6) organizational culture, and (7) it’s all about economics. The findings contributed to scholarship an understanding of sustainability leadership development and corroborated global leadership. However, the participants did not comment enough on the environment and social components of sustainable development to emerge as significant themes. As I pointed out, future research should focus on how or why the disconnect came about?

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Dr. Kimberly Lehman, 2022

Immigration as an Antecedent for Changes in Leadership Behavior: A Study of How Buddhist Leaders’ Immigration from Myanmar to Indiana Affected Their Self-reported Leadership Behaviors

This qualitative, phenomenological study examined the perceptions of Buddhist leaders to understand if and how these leaders perceived their own leadership behaviors changed as a result of immigrating from Myanmar to Indiana. Between 2006 and 2014, there have been more than7,000 Buddhists who have immigrated to Indiana largely because of civil war and unrest in their home country (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], n.d.). This substantial migration of refugees has led to the building of several new Buddhist facilities to support their transition. This study used Liden et al.’s (2008) model of servant leadership as a theoretical framework to better understand this phenomenon. This model of servant leadership includes antecedents, behaviors, and outcomes as a framework to examine the process of servant leadership. The model is appropriate for instances with varying antecedent conditions and in this study, the antecedents of context and culture changed when Buddhist leaders immigrated from Myanmar to Indiana. The data set for this study was a group of six Buddhist leaders who immigrated from Myanmar to Indiana and who are leading congregations in Indiana. The qualitative data for this study was gathered via semistructured interviews with Buddhist leaders who met the requirements outlined in this dissertation with an aim to understand these leaders’ self-perceptions of changes in leadership behaviors. The qualitative data obtained in the interviews was analyzed to understand which, if any, of the seven servant leadership behaviors outlined in Liden et al.’s (2008) model of servant leadership changed and, if so, how they changed. This study contributed to a better understanding of immigrant leader behaviors and servant leadership behaviors in international populations whose context and culture for leading changed as a result of immigrating to a new country. The study also has local significance for Indiana’s religious leaders (Buddhist as well as other faiths), civic leaders, and refugee populations.

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Dr. Lizzie Bronte, 2022

A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Lived Experiences of Women Leaders in Information Technology in Nairobi, Kenya

There have been few studies on the experiences of African women in leadership and minimal research in the field of technology. While the number of women in leadership has steadily increased across most industries, this has not occurred in the information technology (IT) industry, especially in the continent of Africa. The IT industry has had slow growth in women’s progression into leadership positions. Studies that examine women and career advancement in technology note barriers to women’s development, including gender bias, lack of interest by women after midcareer, rapidly changing IT trends, lack of trust by male leaders, and cultural biases towards women leaders; these barriers explain the global shortage of women as IT leaders (e.g., Madsen, 2017; Sample, 2018). This qualitative phenomenological study aimed to explore the lived experiences of women leaders who work in IT companies in Kenya. This study explored the characteristics of African women’s lived experiences in their roles as leaders in a volatile and complex IT environment. The study explored the challenges encountered through their journey and how they overcame these challenges, including the support they may have received that enabled them along the way. The researcher used ten broad questions to explore women’s lived experiences in Kenya. The research findings validated the literature in certain areas and revealed opportunities for future research in unexpected places. In Kenya, women leaders in IT were a minority who experienced gender bias due to patriarchal beliefs and cultural expectations for women, inequalities, and prejudice in a male-dominated industry. An unexpected finding of imposter syndrome revealed that women limited themselves due to their beliefs of not being good enough to compete with men. Overcoming these challenges required proactive behaviors such as developing competence, mentoring, and networking with men and women to understand and excel in the workplace.

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Dr. Henry King, 2022

A Case Study Exploring How Culturally Intelligent Transformational Higher Education Leaders Foster Organizational Innovations in a Multicultural Student Environment

The purpose of this qualitative single case study was to explore how higher education leaders at a public university in the Southeast United States employed cultural intelligence and transformational leadership to successfully foster organizational innovations to adapt to their growing multicultural student context. The objective of this study was to gain knowledge of how the university’s cultural intelligence transformational higher education leadership phenomenon worked from a holistic process perspective. Transformational leadership theory was introduced and applied as the theoretical framework for the study, while the cultural intelligence theory and organizational innovations concepts were used to support the theoretical framework. The researcher collected in-depth and rich empirical data from 10 higher education leaders at the public university using unstructured open-ended questions through Zoom one-on-one virtual interviews. The researcher also collected data from artifacts such as the university’s strategic plan documents, annual student success reports, transcribed podcasts, and student success book. The following five themes emerged from the robust thematic analysis and triangulation strategy: (a) employ internal and external motivational drivers, (b) employ the ability to strategically adapt, (c) positive influence on self-confidence and affective commitment, (d) employ cultural intelligence, transformational leadership practices, and (e) foster innovative student support solutions and equitable student success outcomes. The five emergent themes addressed the objective of this study and research questions. The knowledge gained from this study contributed to cultural intelligence, transformational leadership, and organizational innovations scholarship and advanced such knowledge in domestic and global higher education leadership studies and practices.

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Dr. Dawn Moore, 2022

Attaining Leadership Authenticity: Exploring the Lived Experiences of African American Women Faculty at Predominantly White Institutions

As 21st Century scholars emphasize the importance of globalization, cross-cultural climates that foster genuine engagement with race and gender are becoming increasingly significant to the development of global leaders. African American women faculty, however, are often challenged in attaining authentic leadership, particularly with the intersection of their race and gender at educational institutions that are predominantly White. Consequently, exploring their experiences would provide invaluable insight into the roles that race and gender play in attaining authentic leadership. This study explored nine African American women faculty’s narratives about their lived experiences with senior administration at predominantly White institutions. Analysis of data from interview transcripts identified the emerging themes of adversity, self-authorship, and self-efficacy regarding their difficulties and successes in attaining authentic leadership. This research offered a foundational lens with the theoretical frameworks of authentic leadership, Black feminist thought, and intersectionality for understanding leadership authenticity in cross-cultural climates through the perspectives of African American women faculty at predominantly White institutions as a contribution to the field of global leadership.

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2021

Dr. Mustapha Atar, 2021

Predictors of Organizational Commitment in an Intense Global Environment: A Quantitative Study of IT Professions in the United States

The US information technology industry dominates the global market (CompTIA, 2018). The industry comprises a total of 53% of the global market in hardware, software, and services, 30% in telecom services, and 17% in emerging technologies. However, alarming turnover rates accompany this flourishing technology market (Booz, 2018; Johnson, 2018). With a 13.2% turnover rate, the information technology (IT) industry topped a list of 10 industries with the highest turnover rates (Booz, 2018). High turnover and low tenure indicate lack of commitment among IT professionals, and few studies have examined the antecedents and consequences of commitment and have tried to establish a set of predictors that explain what makes individuals commit to their organizations (DeConinck & Bachamann, 2011; Major et al., 2013). Antecedents and predictors differ substantially and include individual differences and work experiences. This study investigated how organizational commitment of IT professionals in the United States is shaped by employee engagement, followership style, empowerment, supportive leadership, and intensity in the global environment. A survey design was used to measure the key concepts of the study and reveal the strength and direction of relationships among them. The study incorporated a followership perspective in the discussion of organizational commitment, focusing on leadership and organizational outcomes and responded to calls for exploring the characteristics and behaviors of followers (Uhl-Bien et al., 2014). Most importantly, the study offered a scale to measure how intense the task complexity and relationship complexity is in the global environment.
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Dr. Jennifer Wegleitner, 2021

A Mixed Methods Study Examining Faculty Perceptions of Business Students’ Incivility and Its Impact on Preparing Global Leaders

Incivility in higher education is a growing problem that has a lasting impact on faculty, students, and the learning environment. This poses challenges as educators seek to train an increasingly diverse body of students to work in leadership roles globally. Research shows that demographics of faculty members influence the prevalence of incivility in the classroom; and unless faculty are adequately prepared to address incivility, it will have a negative effect on the learning environment. Business education has also experienced this shift, with increasing levels of student incivility in classrooms regardless of efforts to internationalize curriculum and integrate ethics into coursework. This study addresses gaps in higher education and global leadership studies by comparing the differences in international and domestic faculty perceptions of business students’ incivility. The study also explores what international and domestic faculty believe university leadership can do to help confront and control incivility in the classroom, and whether they believe that incivility creates obstacles in developing global leaders.
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Dr. Christopher Snyder, 2021

Exploring Philanthropic Perceptions of Millennial Global Leaders

As the global philanthropic environment changes with new millennial global leaders and philanthropists, it has become increasingly important to identify how charitable millennial global leaders interact with nonprofits. The current study provides a qualitative phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of millennial global leader donors. While much of the research on millennials and philanthropy is related to the workplace, college alumni, financial institutions, and gender studies, this study expanded knowledge as it relates to the millennial global leader demographic, and what drives them philanthropically. The purpose of this study was to explore a deeper understanding of the perspectives and behaviors that drive millennial global leaders and their philanthropic giving. Using social exchange theory, the research clarified if personal gains or political agendas were drivers in millennial global leader giving, as people tend to evaluate their interactions based on social gain (Blau, 1964). The following eight themes emerged from the data (a) Charitable Involvement/Events, (b) Technology and Communication, (c) Ways to Give, (d) Family and Friends, (e) Impact, (f) Millennial Lifestyle and Networking (g) Millennial Philanthropic Perspectives, and (h) Cultural Diversity and Intelligence. The findings of this study have also confirmed and identified new drivers for philanthropy amongst millennial global leaders through the emergent themes. Finally, the results from this study, in combination with organizational data and an extensive literature review suggest that millennial global leaders want to be involved with events that yield significant impact to an organization’s bottom line. The millennial global leaders of the study want to help nonprofits and work on committees so that they can exhibit their talents and create opportunities to network, and simultaneously contribute financially to the cause.
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Dr. Laura Lumbert, 2021

Exploring Followers Lived Experiences with Autonomous Motivation and Leader Support During a Global Organizational Restructuring

The purpose of this study was to understand followers’ lived experiences with autonomous motivation and leader support during a global organizational restructuring in finance. The research was done in the European headquarters of a manufacturing company in Switzerland. This study attempted to address a gap in research to utilize a qualitative research approach to study employee motivation and leader support during an organizational restructuring. This incorporated the theories of self-determination theory (SDT) and leader-member exchange theory (LMX). Through a phenomenological reduction process (Moustakas, 1994), six (6) themes were identified: (1) obligation, (2) relatedness, (3) personal choice, (4) job security, (5) level of leader support, and (6) role of the leader. The findings of the research supported theoretical research on autonomous motivation and leader support. In addition, this research contributes to literature in the context of an organizational restructuring. The themes identified different employee experiences related to motivation and leader support based on employment status and opportunities for future research.
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Dr. Mandy Wriston, 2021

A Case Study of How Leaders in an Appalachian County View Themselves in a Global Society

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of Appalachian adult community leaders and how they perceive themselves in a global society. A case study design was used to explore the perceptions of the global phenomenon of leadership according to Appalachian adults. Data were collected from 13 board members and alumni using unstructured open-ended questions during Zoom one-on-one virtual interviews. Data was also collected using administrative documents, public relations articles, social media posts and a video. Data were analyzed for codes, patterns, and themes using the five-phase formal analysis approach by hand coding and NVivo 12 software. The foundation for the theoretical framework of this study was empowerment theory (social, political, economic, and cultural). The theoretical framework was further underpinned using the concepts of indigenous identity and biculturalism. The findings of this study provided insight as to the significance Appalachian adult community leaders currently place on global leadership concerning their role in the global society. Five themes emerged from this qualitative case study: (a) indigenous identity, (b) biculturalism, (c) empowerment, (d) stereotypes, and (e) leadership. The findings of this study have confirmed Appalachian adult community leaders to have indigenous identities, perceive themselves as bicultural, are empowered, stereotyped, and perceive themselves as having a unique leadership style. Finally, the results of this study, through exploration of demographic questionnaires, one-on-one virtual interviews, organization documents, public relations articles, social media posts and a video as well as an extensive literature review, were used to suggest future research on global leadership in the Appalachian region.
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Dr. Magnus Jansson, 2021

Innovative Work Behavior: Leadership Receptiveness, Individual Perseverance, and Organizational Climate as Enablers

This quantitative study investigated how leadership receptiveness to innovative ideas, individual perseverance to drive innovations to implementation, and the perceived organizational climate predict the innovative work behavior of the employee in the food manufacturing industry. The food manufacturing industry is an industry relying on consumers who are conservative in their choices. Larger, multinational enterprises mass produce in a conservative fashion with few radical innovations implemented. Current and past product sales performance will not guarantee a future sales success if a product status quo is kept. Innovations are essential for organizational survival. Companies rely on the innovative work behavior of the employees to generate new ideas to capitalize on. The industry is experiencing a radical shift in consumer’s preferences towards more healthy options, including a shift from animal-based protein to plant-based protein. Smaller companies enter the market with revolutionary products while the larger companies are falling behind. This study investigated how leader-member exchange theory, individual grit, and organizational climate relate to the innovative work behavior of the employee. Gender, age, tenure, position, and location were control variables added to the analysis to investigate the impact. The study was conducted using an electronic survey instrument posted on LinkedIn and Facebook. Respondents were from the food manufacturing industry in the United States. The result from the study showed that the strongest predictor of innovative work behavior included individual grit, organizational culture, and R&D in job description. The dyadic relationship between the leader and the follower was a weaker predictor of innovative work behavior than organizational culture.
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Dr. James Kisaale, 2021

Community Leaders’ Transformational Leadership Style in Fostering Community Development: Kenya’s Christian Impact Mission

The purpose of this study was to explain the role of community leaders’ transformational leadership style in fostering community development at Christian Impact Mission in Kenya. This study addressed the research gaps in the extant knowledge associated with the concepts of transformational leadership (TL), community leadership (CL), and community development (CD). The study was guided by the theories of transformational leadership theory and Anthony Gidden’s (1984) structuration theory on community development practice. A qualitative research method using a single-case study design was employed. Purposeful sampling guided the selection of eight interview participants. The study employed documents and interviews as its data sources. Data was collected using a case study protocol and was analyzed using Lichtman’s (2013) strategy of coding, categorizing, and identifying concepts. Eight themes emerged from the analysis namely: (1) Influencing (2) Mindset changer (3) Collaboration (4) Communication (5) Spirituality (6) Innovation (7) Community involvement and (8) Cultural orientation. These eight core themes reflected the participants’ perception of their transformational leadership characteristics which they demonstrated and exhibited at Christian Impact Mission as they utilized these skills for community development. Keywords: community leadership, transformational leadership style, community development
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Dr. Russ Timmons, 2021

Exploring Global Disruptive Leadership in Practice: A Multi-level Pragmatic Synthesis Model

Digitalization, increased competition, and the continuous evolution of technology have fueled heightened complexity, disruption, and innovation in the global marketplace (Wasono & Furinto, 2018). Organizations that do not innovate and respond to disruptive threats are less likely to be sustainable (Schumacher & Wasieleski, 2013). Scholars have called for additional research and legitimization of leadership models that specifically address the challenges associated with disruption (Carter Jr. et al., 2014; de Freitas & Routledge, 2013; Quek & Manwani, 2016; Tardif, 2020). However, a survey of existing scholarship reveals an underserved academic knowledge base. Discrepancies concerning the treatment of disruptive leadership were found to exist, including scholarly publications that have negatively portrayed the phenomenon in direct opposition to the widely complementary view held by practitioners and other scholars. Whether and to what extent a knowledge gap exists between scholarship and practice on disruptive leadership’s characterization is unknown. In the spirit of co-production, the present study responded to these concerns with a qualitative content analysis of 22 practitioner-based works. Results included 56 emergent concepts, four dominant themes, and eight interpreted insights that uniquely characterize disruptive leadership. Findings were aligned with leadership perspectives at the micro, meso, and macro levels to offer a multi-level pragmatic model of disruptive leadership.
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Dr. Chad Copple, 2021

Rural Community College Internationalization: Experiences, Challenges and Successes of Leaders

Rural community colleges, like most institutions of higher education, have been called upon to respond to the forces of globalization through internationalization. Institutional leaders and educational policymakers continue to turn their attention to this issue due to the increased demand for globally competent workers. Internationalization can lead to increased intercultural competence, a key component of global leadership. Rural community colleges may face unique challenges in their internationalization efforts, including lack of diversity within their districts or student bodies, lack of resources, internationalization being overridden by other institutional priorities, and a perceived conflict with the common institutional mission of serving their local districts. This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of leaders of rural community colleges or those who lead their internationalization efforts, with the goal of discerning what they are doing and why, the challenges they face, and what successes or failures they have experienced. The study centered on rural public colleges in the Higher Learning Commission’s (HLC) coverage area. The study resulted in four main themes: leaders know a global perspective matters; administrative support is critical; lack of resources is a challenge; and rurality and homogeneity do bring specific challenges such as lack of inherent diversity and lack of priority. A proposed framework for rural college internationalization is proposed: find a champion; make internationalization an articulated institutional commitment; engage with multicultural presences; work with partners; and educate stakeholders. This framework may provide a foundation for rural colleges to use in establishing an internationalization plan to go about the work of producing the next generation of global leaders.
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Dr. Vanetta Busch, 2021

Glocal Human Resources Leaders Roles, Role Conflict, and Competencies

A company’s ability to survive depends greatly on its ability to build financial and human capital within a glocal context. Human resources leaders play a significant role in helping local organizations response to global demands by preparing the workforce and developing global leaders. Although previous studies have not identified HR leaders as global leaders themselves nor been connected to possessing global leadership competencies, HR leaders working in a glocal context function in global leadership roles when dealing with global complexities. This research explored roles, role conflict, and competencies that HR leaders experience when working in a glocal context. Based on 11 HR leaders from different industries, this empirical finding determined that COVID-19 became a glocal catalyst that created an unstable working environment consisting of varying degrees of task and relationship complexities. To reach strategic renewal, glocal HR leaders’ roles and role conflict did not change significantly unless the working conditions consisted of high degrees of task and relationship complexities. Additionally, glocal HR leaders utilized leadership and management competencies similar to global leaders to be effective. From a HR development standpoint, results suggest that future HR leaders should become aware of the task and relationship complexities associated with working in a glocal context and the global leadership competencies needed to successfully help leaders, employees, and the organization navigate through an organization’s global and local–glocal context.
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Dr. Greg Madsen, 2021

Male Allies’ Perception of Gender Bias and the Relationship Between Psychological Standing and Willingness to Engage

Women are seriously underrepresented globally in corporate leadership with less than 5% of CEO positions being held by women. However, financial, cultural, ethical, and environmental benefits accrue to organizations that do promote women. Women face difficult stereotype and other forms of gender bias, which make reaching elite levels of leadership difficult. As men hold powerful and influential corporate positions, making progress will require men’s dedicated contribution. In these efforts, when men are not involved, progress is impaired. Despite the need, men’s engagement is lacking. Men who support equality are hesitant to engage with this issue due to a lack of psychological standing, where psychological standing is a socially recognized and legitimate reason to act. This paper conducts a quantitative study to examine the relationship between men’s perception of gender bias, their psychological standing related to the topic of gender equality, and their engagement to correct this imbalance. Surveys were collected from 342 participants meeting the inclusion criteria. Through principal component analysis, a 38-item, seven-factor gender bias recognition scale for men was created and partially validated. Survey results were then used to check support for four hypotheses regarding the relationship between gender bias recognition, psychological standing, and ally engagement. Statistical analysis showed that the relationship between men’s perception of gender bias and both psychological standing and ally engagement was either weak or non-existent. However, the profound strength of the relationship between psychological standing and ally engagement is a key outcome. Additionally, post hoc analysis showed that some gender bias factors did have a relationship with both psychological standing and ally engagement. The creation of the gender bias recognition scale for men and highlighting the importance of psychological standing will aid both global scholars and global organizations progress toward greater gender leadership balance in the business organizations of the future.
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Dr. Tariq Zaman, 2021

A Phenomenological Study of Followership Roles from the Perspective of Followers in the Ready-Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore followership roles in the Bangladesh garment industry. Followership theory provided the framework for exploring followership in an industry with poor working conditions, safety violations, suspension of fundamental human rights, accidents, and deaths. This study will add to the literature on followership in Bangladesh. A qualitative phenomenological method was used to explore the lived experiences of 10 garment workers from the same factory. Semi-structured interviews by phone provided information from the workers. Utmost efforts ensured the confidentiality and safety of the workers throughout the research process. The garment workers’ perceptions, understanding, and voices explained their roles in the factory. Local transcriptionists, translators, and a local assistant helped transcribe, translate, and back-translate the interviews. Eight themes emerged through a phenomenological reduction method of analysis: (1) sociocultural diversity, (2) autocratic leadership style, (3) fatalistic worldview, (4) followership resiliency, (5) gender inequality, (6) competency-based trust, (7) high trust level between workers and immediate supervisors, and (8) safe work environment. The findings confirmed that the followers’ organizational, political, social, and cultural contexts shaped their roles and behaviors in the industry. Followership helped guide leadership behaviors and leader-follower trust at the supervisory level. Followers exhibited an active and proactive orientation with their immediate supervisors and passive and conformist behaviors with the top leaders. The findings contribute to global leadership scholarship by generating followership knowledge in Bangladesh. The findings can lead to followership and leadership training and development in the industry.
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Dr. Dr. Martha Martin, 2021

Leaders in Libya: A study of Libyan Mid-Level Oil Executives Examining Leadership Transformation from Expatriate Study of 16 Habits of Mind Curriculum

In 2015, a group of 10 mid-level oil company executives from Libya began an academic program of study in the United States. Their custom study program incorporated a variety of academic subjects and a leadership training program formulated from Art Costas’s Habits of Mind curriculum (Costa & Kallick, 2008). The coordinated leadership training, cross-cultural adjustment activities, and academic experiences for this group provided a prime opportunity for a qualitative phenomenological research to examine transformative learning gains. When learning experiences occur (such as with the group of oil executives), transformative learning gains cause a shift in an individual’s perspective or reframing of perspective. This is based on the idea that learning occurs when new meaning is created from an experience (Mezirow, 1991). The lived experiences and understanding of global leadership by Libyan oil company employees has not been examined extensively (Vandewalle, 2007). This paper explores leadership knowledge gained after cross-cultural experiences and exposure to leadership concepts in the United States. This was done by exploring the lived experiences of oil employees as expatriates. Findings from the research revealed that Costa’s Habits of Mind (HOM) curriculum influenced the Libyan expatriates in the areas of communication, flexibility, self-awareness, humor, and patience. In addition, this qualitative phenomenological study revealed that the Libyan expatriates created definitions of leadership after HOM study.Keywords: global leadership, global leader, oil company employee, Libya, qualitative case study, transformative learning gains, habits of mind
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Dr. Fidelis Agbor, 2021

Experiences of African Born Leaders in the U.S. Army

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of African-born leaders in the United States Army and how their careers were shaped by the intersection of race, culture, and ethnicity. Since the early 1980s, there has been an increasing number of African enlistments and contributions to the defense of the United States and its allies, but little is known of their experiences and challenges in light of the sociocultural differences that the new environment presents. I collected data through interview of 13 former and current African-born officers and noncommissioned officers of the U.S. Army from the following countries: Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Liberia, and Ghana. Each participant has served between 6-26years and has held a senior or midlevel leadership position at least once in their Army career. This study brings to light various reasons Africans enlist in the U.S. Army including a desire to give back, to travel, or to pursue advanced education. Furthermore, participants identified the major hurdles to their career advancement. Many noted that they lacked mentorship and equal opportunities, and others felt they had to work harder than their peers in order to succeed. The concluding chapter provides a summary of how these individuals overcame their challenges, reflects on the study’s impact for the U.S. Armed Forces and Global leadership training, and offers recommendations for future research.
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Dr. Heather Finney, 2021

Relationship between Leadership Styles and Total Quality Management in Chemical Manufacturing Companies in India and the United States

Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy that considers customers’ requirements and improves the quality of products and services. Organizations that continuously improve at all levels will increase their chances of being successful and globally competitive. Many TQM implementations fail, and leadership is believed to be a significant factor in successful implementations. Leadership is required to drive organizational results which is also necessary when institutionalizing TQM practices. Global leaders that implement TQM programs would benefit knowing which leadership style to employ to prevent failure. Eighty surveys were analyzed which were given to quality managers in chemical companies in India and the United States to investigate the leadership styles and TQM practices. The results point to extensive similarities in leadership style and TQM practices of chemical companies in the two countries as reported by the quality leaders surveyed in this study. Results showed no significant differences between Indian and United States chemical companies in aggregate leadership scores or TQM scores. However, results pointed to different relationships between leadership style and TQM practices in the two countries. Mean scores of the TQM practice of process management were higher in United States chemical companies with transformational leadership compared to transactional leadership. Results show that transformational leadership is associated with higher organizational performance for United States chemical companies compared to transactional leadership. No relationship was found between leadership style and TQM practices in Indian chemical companies.
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2020

Dr. Eric Christensen, 2020

Servant Leadership in a Global Context: Organizational Relationships in Online Mental Health Service Startups

Servant leadership is a theory that suggests desirable organizational outcomes are a function of a leader’s focus on those other than him or herself (Stone, Russell, & Patterson, 2004). Servant leadership has been applied to a variety of organizational contexts, including those in the healthcare industry (Hanse, Harlin, Jarebrant, Ulin, & Winkel, 2016; O’Brien, 2010). However, as technological advancement drives social change, the structure and nature of organizations change as well. Accordingly, this research studies servant leadership in a global organizational context, extending the consideration of this leadership framework to the virtual mental healthcare field. Associations with organizational follower-level variables of empathic concern, public service motivation, affective commitment, and perceptions of organizational innovativeness are considered from a review of literature building on servant leadership theory and a theory of the on-demand economy. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed servant leadership was significantly correlated with the study’s measure of public service motivation, affective commitment, and perceptions of organizational innovation. Implications for scholarship and practice are discussed.
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Dr. Anna Lilleboe, 2020

Courageous Followership in the United States and Japan: Examining the Role of Culture in Ideal Followership

Followership is a nascent yet emerging subject. An increasing number of scholars are recognizing the critical role of followers and that leadership cannot exist without followership. Most followership studies take place in the United States, which constrains knowledge growth on followership from a global perspective. Understanding regarding ideal followership has largely been limited to reflect Western values. One of the most popular propositions regarding ideal followership is the courageous followership concept developed by Ira Chaleff. Chaleff’s book on courageous followership has been published globally in six different languages, yet the argument that the concept represents ideal followership has not been explored outside of the United States. This study contains an examination of whether the belief that courageous followership represents ideal followership is shared between American and Japanese followers as the countries offer an interesting contrast in cultural values and can offer a non-Western perspective. Through a quasi-experimental mixed factor repeated measure design, analysis of variance with covariates revealed how followers from each country perceive courageous followership behaviors as ideal and how often these followers practice such behaviors. The results showed that American participants favored courageous followership as ideal form of followership more so compared to Japanese participants. American participants also reported higher level of courageous followership behaviors in practice compared to Japanese participants—except for behaviors associated with the courage to take moral action. The study’s findings help advance global leadership by expanding knowledge regarding followership from a global perspective, testing courageous followership concept in a non-Western context, and capturing how different followers from different cultures practice followership behaviors.
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Dr. Collin Barry, 2020

The Relationships between Authentic Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Generation Z in the United States Marine Corps

The following study explores the relationships among authentic leadership theory, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among deployed active duty enlisted Generation Z members serving in the U.S. Marine Corps. It is argued that leaders who influence with authenticity have a greater chance of positively affecting those around them, focusing on the global-operating U.S. military, a melting pot microcosm of American society. Authentic leadership theory is defined, suggesting that the majority of this style’s characteristics can influence Generation Z more effectively than other styles of leadership, thus improving job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The generalized idiosyncrasies of Generation Z are identified, finding common themes among current scholars of generational theory. The leadership style of authoritarianism is explored, postulating that a method once utilized to lead past U.S. military generations is no longer effective. Generational influence within the commonly autocratic-driven U.S. Marine Corps is addressed, suggesting that a positive relationship exists between the qualities of authentic leadership and the follower needs of Generation Z. Hypotheses will be tested by utilizing a quantitative correlational survey design to gather data that may reveal relationships among the predictor variable of authentic leadership and outcome variables of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
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Dr. Tobey Zimber, 2020

Global Followers’ Identities Within the Global Social Movement of the Women’s March: A Phenomenological Study

Complex global business environments have posed significant demands upon leaders and inspired organizations to study ways to achieve organizational effectiveness. Within this complex, global environment, individuals form collaborative relationships where they work toward common goals. Currently, there is limited theorizing and little empirical evidence on global followers and their influence in the leadership process. This study explores the lived experiences of global followers in relation to leaders within the context of the global social movement of the Women’s March. Social identity theory, followership theory, and the construct of global followership are discussed as underlying theoretical and conceptual elements of this research. The two central research questions that guide this investigation are: (1) How do global followers describe their lived experiences associated with the global social movement of the Women’s March? (2) How do global followers of the global social movement of the Women’s March describe how their activities, characteristics, and traits influence their followership? Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, and the interviews were transcribed and analyzed with a qualitative analysis software, Dedoose. Research findings led to the emergence of the following seven themes: (1) We are a community of like-minded people with similar values, (2) I want to be a solution to the problem, (3) I hope to be an inspiration for others, (4) Power of the present and fear of the future, (5), Using my voice to fight global injustice, (6) We need to work for visibility and inclusion, (7) Being in service to something bigger than myself. Findings highlight the collaborative efforts and contributions of global followers as co-creators of leadership and proactive agents within the leadership process.
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Dr. Nuchelle Chance, 2020

“Nevertheless, She Persisted”: Exploring the Influence of Adversity on Black Women in Higher Education Senior Leadership

This dissertation explored the concept of adversity and the lived experiences of Black women in higher education senior leadership. Using phenomenology, this study specifically explored how adversity has led Black women to leadership serving in higher education senior leadership. Past literature shows that Black women leaders undergo extreme challenges, including limited role models, the concrete ceiling, double discrimination, and the intersectionality of racism and sexism, as well as tokenism. The current findings validate the literature as some of the more salient codes of adversity that emerged were challenges with identity: (a) cultural diversity and belonging, (b) discrimination such as racism, sexism, ageism and the intersection of these, (c) varying adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], (d) career discernment, (e) divorce and/or dissolving romantic relationships, (f) financial issues, and (g) health issues. Yet Black women are resilient and strong. Referred to as “superwomen,” Black women have been able to overcome countless odds to advance and become pioneers in their fields and reach advanced levels of educational attainment. The results of this study reveal that Black women use adversity as fuel to overcome crucible experiences, thus helping them develop the necessary skills to prepare them for leadership. Their strength through adversity is driven by resilience. Resilience has manifested itself in many ways for the participants of this study, varying from motivation factors such as family and relationships, mentors, community support, self-care and nurturing, friendships and sisterhoods, as well as the support of cultural identity and diversity. The current findings grounded in the crucible leadership theory (Bennis & Thomas, 2002) support the notion that adverse crucible experiences shape Black women into leaders with emphasis on higher education senior leadership.
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Dr. Anna Lilleboe, 2020

Courageous Followership in the United States and Japan: Examining the Role of Culture in Ideal Followership

Followership is a nascent yet emerging subject. An increasing number of scholars are recognizing the critical role of followers and that leadership cannot exist without followership. Most followership studies take place in the United States, which constrains knowledge growth on followership from a global perspective. Understanding regarding ideal followership has largely been limited to reflect Western values. One of the most popular propositions regarding ideal followership is the courageous followership concept developed by Ira Chaleff. Chaleff’s book on courageous followership has been published globally in six different languages, yet the argument that the concept represents ideal followership has not been explored outside of the United States. This study contains an examination of whether the belief that courageous followership represents ideal followership is shared between American and Japanese followers as the countries offer an interesting contrast in cultural values and can offer a non-Western perspective. Through a quasi-experimental mixed factor repeated measure design, analysis of variance with covariates revealed how followers from each country perceive courageous followership behaviors as ideal and how often these followers practice such behaviors. The results showed that American participants favored courageous followership as ideal form of followership more so compared to Japanese participants. American participants also reported higher level of courageous followership behaviors in practice compared to Japanese participants—except for behaviors associated with the courage to take moral action. The study’s findings help advance global leadership by expanding knowledge regarding followership from a global perspective, testing courageous followership concept in a non-Western context, and capturing how different followers from different cultures practice followership behaviors.
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Dr. Mohamed Yahya Abdel Wedoud , 2020

A Single Case Study Exploring Male Millennial Leaders’ Perceptions of Women as Leaders in a Large Mauritanian Organization

This study used a qualitative case study research design to explore male millennial leaders’ perceptions of women as leaders in large Mauritanian organizations. Transformational leadership theory and social dominance theory were used as the theoretical bases to guide the study. The study raises awareness about aspects of African women leaders through the eyes of the male, millennial leaders in a historically male-dominated society. Furthermore, the study provides data to enhance the understanding of local, regional, and global leaders who work to liberate female leaders through organizational development and gender equality, globally. Perceptions of male leaders were explored to find out what can be done to change perceptions that may limit the possibilities for women to gain access to leadership roles in Mauritanian organizations.
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Dr. Abdurrahim Hocagil , 2020

Exploring Global Followership Phenomenon in Global Organizational Context: A Study of Global Followers Within Global Technology Companies

The purpose of the current phenomenological study was to explore the global followership phenomenon within a global organizational context, specifically within global technology organizations to understand the lived experiences of global followers and how they develop their global followership behaviors. The present study used three overarching research questions to explore lived experiences of global followers: (1) How do global followers at global technology organizations describe their lived experiences that help them develop global followership behaviors? (2) How do global followers describe how global organizational context plays a role in global followership development processes? (3) How does global followers’ national culture shapes their global followership behaviors? In light of these research questions, the researcher developed open-ended interview questions that explored participants’ experiences of development of global followership behaviors. The interview questions scrutinized the experiences of global followers, the influence of global organizational context, and the influence of culture on their behaviors. The theoretical framework guided the study was followership theory and the concept of global followership. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling strategies were used to recruit participants. After selecting individuals who meet the initial criteria, the researcher emailed screening questions to selected individuals and collected self-reported information. Based on their responses to screening questions, individuals who self-reported that they support and practice freely, constructively, and courageously contributing to leadership processes as well as supporting and practicing constructively opposing their leaders’ decisions by voicing their concerns and opinions against their leaders when they see necessary to enhance leadership processes acknowledged as global followers and selected as participants. Data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and the interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using NVivo 12 qualitative analysis software. Data analysis led to the development of four core themes that explained the experiences of global followers and their development of effective global followership behaviors: (1) following effectively, (2) following globally, (3) developing continuously, and (4) managing challenges. The current study’s results are consistent with Tolstikov-Mast’s (2016)’s assertions and confirm global followership concept is different than followership in domestic contexts due to the complexities of global environment. The findings of the present study may help future global followers that they could learn the developmental pathways presented by the participants and try to train to be effective global followers and contribute to co-construction of global leadership processes in their organizations. Global leaders could also learn from findings of this study and try to foster global followers that would help them to enhance global leadership outcomes. Global organizations could use the findings of the present study to develop specific global followership development activities or trainings in order to develop effective global followers and enhance global leadership outcomes in their organizations.
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Dr. David Ransom , 2020

An Exploration of Perceptions, Internal Mechanisms and External Forces that may Influence Ethical Decision Making

This study sought to explore the underlying perceptions, internal mechanisms, and external forces that may influence the ethical decision-making process of middle managers in a multinational organization. A qualitative phenomenological research approach was undertaken as it provided the best opportunity to develop a common description from participants’ lived experiences that highlighted ‘what’ the participants experienced and ‘how’ they experienced it. This study contributes to the field of global leadership studies by providing an understanding of how global managers perceive an ethical issue, the ways in which they construct their own ethical reality, and how they explain the complexity of their ethical reasoning. In addition, this study shows the value in developing an ethics training program for multinational organizations in order to develop better cross-cultural understanding. Ultimately, this can result in improving the effectiveness of managers’ ethical reasoning skills through a learning environment that is experience-based and involves problem-solving activities and collaboration.
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Dr. Eric Pilon-Bignell , 2020

Exploring Improvisation: The Human Element of Decisions Made by Executives in States of Complexity within Consulting Firms

The purpose of this research is to use transcendental phenomenology to explore the lived experiences and events of executives, and how improvisation is experienced when decisions are made in states of complexity within a consulting firm. The central research topic of this doctoral study focuses on executives in moments of complexity. The stated phenomenological method was engaged to explore the lived experiences of management and technology consulting firm executives on how they experience improvisation when making decisions in states of complexity. To guide this study, a theoretical framework consisting of complexity leadership theory, human elements of decisions, and improvisation was developed. Findings from this study highlighted five core themes that emerged from the phenomenon:(1) leading through complexity, (2) using improvisation, (3) leading with no data, (4) leading with only data, and (5) mixing humans and data. For academics and practitioners, the data gathered from this research creates an essence of the experience of how improvisation is experienced in complexity by executives in a consulting firm. The author hopes that this research in some way, will assist current and future executives to better understand the value of improvisation and how it can be applied successfully to lead in the complexities of the global business landscape.
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Dr. Kevin Rooney , 2020

Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment in a Multinational Organization: The Partial Mediating Role of Cultural Intelligence

Organizations are undergoing unprecedented change, driven mainly by cost effectiveness and globalization. These changes leave organizations seeking a new type of leader, one who can manage a global workforce, navigate the impact of globalization, and foster employee organizational commitment. Through the grounding of transformational leadership theory, the present study examines the partial mediating relationship of cultural intelligence on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment in an intercultural context. The current study operationalized concepts through three surveys: multifactor leadership questionnaire form-5X (MLQ Form-5X), three-component model commitment survey (TCM), cultural intelligence survey (CQS). Using a sample of 102 full-time professionals who had a geographically dispersed intercultural relationship with their manager provides evidence that cultural intelligence partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee normative commitment. Additionally, this study evidenced that cultural intelligence does not partially mediate the relationships between transformational leadership style and affective or continuance commitment. Supplemental analyses supported that a manager’s cultural intelligence had a significant association with their demonstration of transformational leadership style and an employee’s level of affective and normative commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of this study clarify the interactions between cultural intelligence, transformational leadership, and organization commitment addressing a growing concern surrounding how intercultural leaders effectively manage complexity emanating from geographic dispersion, multiculturalism, and organizational cultural diversity; furthering the competencies of effective global leaders.
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Dr. Michael Fields , 2020

Exploring the Relationship of Predispositions Before and During the College Experience, Including Study Abroad, Which May Impact Intercultural Competence of University Students

With the continued globalization of the workforce today, it is becoming more and more important for today’s workers to be globally competent. For workers to be globally competent, it is essential that they gain the necessary skills while completing their college education. To gain these competencies, institutions of higher education need to produce graduates with high intercultural competence. Impact of intercultural competence has to be acquired through specific formal and informal experience for students to have the greatest gains during their college experience. These experiences actually begin before college and continue during their time in college. While literature has long stated that study abroad positively impacts intercultural competence, that alone may not be the best or only way to positively impact intercultural competence. This study explores the impact of precollege characteristics, college experiences, and study abroad on students’ intercultural competence at a rural, public, 4-year liberal arts university. To assess this impact of intercultural competence, students were asked to answer a demographic survey capturing the data on precollege characteristics and the college experience, as well as a survey instrument assessing intercultural competence.
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2019

Dr. Steven Stauffer , 2019

The Impacts of Business Curriculum Internationalization on Student Completion and Success in Ohio Community Colleges

The purpose of this global leadership study was to investigate the impact community college business curriculum internationalization has on the key components of the Ohio State Share of Instruction (SSI) funding formula. This analysis should assist institutional decision-makers in determining whether or not to incorporate such initiatives at their schools as many accrediting bodies are placing greater emphasis on student success and numerous states are tying public funding to completion rates. Starting in Fiscal Year 2014, the state of Ohio began implementing a new performance-based formula that allocates funding to universities and colleges based on student success instead of enrollment. As community colleges across the state work to adjust to the new formula, many are considering novel methods to expand their resource base through curriculum internationalization. This study sought to determine the existence and degree of a quantitative relationship between business curriculum internationalization and student course completions, program and certificate completions, and success points within the Ohio SSI funding model. Ultimately, the results of this inquiry indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the variables, primarily due to a lack of distinctive differences between the various Ohio community colleges in terms of their degrees of business curriculum internationalization.
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Dr. Wendy Kobler , 2019

A Phenomenological Study: The Lived Experiences of Women Who Have Achieved CEO Positions in Four-Year Higher Education Institutions

Progress has been made with women gaining more employment opportunity through the years in higher education. The progress has been seen in the lower positions; but the higher a woman climbs in four-year higher education institutions, the fewer positions she will find open to her gender. Notably, gender inequity still exists in higher education leadership and especially in the top leadership positions in this sector. Until 2016, the accepted remedy for this gender equity issue was to create a pipeline for more women to be qualified and ready to flow into the openings of the chief executive officer (CEO) position of four-year higher education institutions as they became available (American Council of Education, 2016). The American Council of Education (ACE) in 2016 declared the pipeline remedy a myth (2016). With that declaration, the American Council of Education stated that there was a need for more research on pathways women can take to successfully reach the top CEO positions in higher education (2016). The purpose of this study was to seek to understand the phenomenon of how women have overcome barriers and secured the presidency in colleges and universities (ACE, 2016). The goal of this phenomenological study was to determine the pathway that these women CEOs took and to answer the call for more research on the pathways of how more women can obtain the position of CEO. It comes at a time when there is possibly the greatest climate that is conducive for women to achieve positions that have seldom been open to them in past history. The study was guided by research by Susan Madsen (2008) on the lived experiences of women university CEOs that is now considered the seminal work in the arena of higher education leadership and gender inequity.
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2018

Dr. Danielle Lombard-Sims, 2018

Exploring Antecedents of Organizational Success for Bicultural Global Female Leaders

Global leadership research arose out of a need for organizations to develop individuals who can successfully manage people, markets, and strategies globally (Mendenhall, et al., 2013). As the field is relatively new, there is gap in global leadership literature in understanding the antecedents of success of bicultural global female leaders in multi-cultural organizational environments. In addition, views from a power dynamic of critical theory has not been fully explored. As a result of this gap in the literature, this dissertation study explored the intersectionality of success, gender, and biculturalism to understand, through the voice and lived experiences of bicultural female leaders, how they assign meaning to the attainment of organizational success in global healthcare leadership positions in order to encourage organizational change. Utilizing the phenomenological van Kaam 8-step method of data analysis (Moustakas, 1994), this study identified five themes related to how global leadership competencies, the meaning of success, and organizational influencers impact bicultural female global leader success. This study added unique contributions in understanding (a) the shared meaning of success for bicultural global female leaders across various cultural groups as told through their voice, (b) how gender and biculturalism intersect to inform their experience as global leaders, specifically in empowering them to overcome historical biases that exist in organizations, and (c) actions organizations can do to help more bicultural women become global leaders. In addition to the unique contributions, findings related to successful global competencies, transformational leadership characteristics, and female leaders’ role in assisting with equal opportunities correspond with empirical and theoretical research on the success of global bicultural female leaders.
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Dr. James Campbell, Jr., 2018

A Case Study Exploring the Lived Experiences of Direct Support Professionals: Examining the Link between Lived Experiences and Leadership Style

The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of direct support professionals who support people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. As well, this study examined the relationship between the lived experiences of direct support professionals and the leadership and business practices of their organizations. This study employed an embedded mix-method multiple-case study design, which allowed multiple data collection methods that probed the essence of the participants’ lived experiences within their workplace. A sequential mixed-method procedure was commenced by convenience sampling of 50 direct support professionals from each organization to complete a survey instrument that possessed four major categories considered important to direct support professionals. Survey responses served as a guide while conducting face-to-face interviews with the senior leaders of each organization. Prior to interviewing senior leaders, five direct support professionals with at least five years of employment were randomly selected to be interviewed. The interview questions explored the lived experience of participants and their perceptions of the quality of organizational leadership and culture.
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Dr. Danielle Lombard-Sims , 2018

Exploring Antecedence of Organizational Success for Bicultural Female Leaders

Global leadership research arose out of a need for organizations to develop individuals who can successfully manage people, markets and strategies globally (Mendenhall, et al., 2013). As the field is relatively new, there is gap in global leadership literature in understanding the antecedents of success of global leaders, and specifically bicultural global female leaders, in multi-cultural organizational environments. In addition, views from a power dynamic of critical theory has not been fully explored. As a result of this gap in the literature, this dissertation study explored the intersectionality of success, gender and biculturalism to understand, through the voice and lived experiences of bicultural female leaders, how they assign meaning to the attainment of organizational success in global healthcare leadership positions in order to encourage organizational change. Utilizing the phenomenological van Kaam 8-step method of data analysis (Moustakas, 1994), this study identified five themes related to how global leadership competencies, the meaning of success, and organizational influencers impact bicultural female global leader success. The five themes identified include (a) successful global leadership organizational competencies (b) meaning of success (c) intersection of gender and biculturalism on organizational success (d) organizational facilitators of success for bicultural global female leaders and (e) organizational inhibitors of success that require change. This study added unique contributions in understanding (a) the shared meaning of success for bicultural global female leaders across various cultural groups as told through their voice, (b) how gender and biculturalism intersect to inform their experience as global leaders, specifically in empowering them to overcome historical biases that exist in organizations, and (c) actions organizations can do to help more bicultural women become global leaders. In addition to the unique contributions, findings related to successful global competencies, transformational leadership characteristics, and female leaders’ role in assisting with equal opportunities correspond with empirical and theoretical research on the success of global bicultural female leaders.
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Dr. Jehu Chong , 2018

Workplace Longevity and The Lived Experiences of Senior Leaders’ Perceptions of Millennial Job Satisfaction: A Multigenerational Study of the Dutch Caribbean Financial Sector

The topic of workplace longevity includes a vast area of scholarly writing relating to the themes of organizational success, job satisfaction, work commitment, effective managerial leadership, employee engagement, workforce-retention strategies, and cultural influences on work habits. The focus of this exploration is to discover how job satisfaction impacts the tenure of senior leaders and to uncover the association of emerging trends using a generational perspective that directly derives from senior leaders’ lived experiences. The objective was to solicit responses about the concepts affecting employees’ self-identified organizational motives, thus explaining an employees’ realization, awareness, and understanding of the components that factor into their choice of whether to stay or leave a company. Herzberg’s (1978) motivation theory was introduced and applied to this study as the theoretical framework. This theory explored the hygiene factors and motivator factors that cause job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction. Seven themes emerged from this qualitative transcendental phenomenological research study: (a) millennials, (b) training and development, (c) mentality shift, (d) corporate culture, (e) workplace longevity, (f) change and adaptability, and (g) communication. The research study was promulgated upon a global platform and thus includes a discussion of global implications and a new definition of global leadership. Global leaders in the present work climate are charged with managing diverse populations of employees from assorted cultures, with a mixture of mind-sets, and with a comprehensive collection of ideals, beliefs, values, and principles. This research explored global leadership through the lens of innovation and a team-oriented perspective.
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2017

Dr. Michael Call, 2017

Home or Abroad? Determinants of Major Charitable Giving to Domestic Vs. International Causes

This study provides insight into demographic and psychographic distinctions between major donors ($10,000 USD or more in a single gift) to domestic causes, international causes, and both types of causes. A simple random sample telephone survey of 410 U.S. individuals with annual household incomes of $250,000 or more and who have a history of charitable giving provided data for this analysis. Of these 410 respondents, 118 had given only to domestic causes in the past 12 months, 143 had given only to international causes, and 149 had given to both types of causes. All of these gifts met the filter of at least $10,000. Items in the survey included demographic data, number of major gifts to charity, sizes of gifts, type of recipient organization, and psychographic traits. These psychographic traits included experiential traits of childhood extracurricular activities, childhood volunteering, childhood religiosity, childhood traumatic events, adult religiosity, and adult engagement in civic groups. Values-based psychographic analysis relied on Kahle’s List of Values (LOV). A test for Chronbach’s alpha verified the data were reliable. Statistical analyses conducted include tests of correlation and association, multiple regression analysis, discriminant function analysis, and multinomial regression analysis. Results show significant differences between major donors to domestic causes only, major donors to international causes only, and major donors to both types of causes. Determinants of major giving to domestic causes only include the LOV traits of self-fulfillment and sense of belonging, as well as the experiential traits of childhood traumatic event, childhood religiosity, and adult engagement in civic groups; determinants of major giving to international causes only include the LOV value of being well respected and the experiential trait of childhood extracurricular activities. Determinants of major giving to both types of causes include the LOV trait of being well respected and the experiential trait of adult engagement in civic groups, as well as the demographic traits of being a single male not living with or married to a partner. Two models are presented for further research and insights.
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Dr. Angel Baez Vega, 2017

The Lived Experiences of Latina Women It Leaders in Global Organizations: Exploring Their Stories on Intercultural Sensitivity and Trust

The goal of this study was to explore the lived experiences of Latina women IT leaders at global organizations as they cultivate trust and acceptance of intercultural differences. Trust and intercultural sensitivity are recognized elements in the development of successful team collaborations. However, little research has been devoted to describe the experiences of Latina women leaders in the IT sector in the process of cultivating trusting and interculturally sensitive relationships with others. That being the case, this study was guided by the following overarching research questions: (1) How do Latina women IT leaders describe their experiences developing trusting and interculturally sensitive relationships with their followers? (2) How do Latina women IT leaders describe their experiences cultivating trust and intercultural sensitivity as they interact with other leaders? (3) What experiences are perceived by Latina Women IT leaders as barriers to the development of an organizational culture that supports trust and acceptance of intercultural differences? This researcher asked interview questions to explore the role of trust and intercultural sensitivity on the effectiveness of Latina women leaders in the IT sector of global organizations.Global leadership, behavioral leadership, intercultural sensitivity and trust theories provided the theoretical framework that guided this study. Semi-structured interviews guided the data collection with the study participants. A purposeful sampling approach was used for the selection of the seven study participants. Data collected was transcribed and with the exception of one discussion that was conducted in English, the interviews were translated from Spanish into the English language. Then, the data was uploaded for analysis into Dedoose® social research analysis software. Five core themes emerged from the data analysis addressing issues concerning the development of a working environment that foster trust and intercultural sensitivity: (1) cross-cultural competence, (2) good working relationships, (3) asymmetry, (4) organizational culture and (5) effective leader. From this study findings, the “Behavior-based Trust and Inter-cultural Sensitivity Development” Model was developed showcasing the connection between the behavior of leaders and the core dimensions that emerged from the interviews in the study.
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Dr. Mia Johnson , 2017

Resilience and Intercultural Competence: Examining the Relationship in Community College Transformational Leaders

The main purpose of the study was to determine if there was a correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders at Ivy Tech Community College. Kouzes and Posner’s Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership was used to establish leaders’ transformation leadership qualities; the Connor-Davidson CD-RISC was used to assess leaders’ resilience, and Fantini’s Assessment of Intercultural Competence (YOGA Form) was used to measure leaders’ intercultural competence. The study population included leaders in supervisor roles from two regions within Ivy Tech Community College. The findings of the study indicate there was no significant correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders.
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Dr. Kristina Creager , 2017

Emotional intelligence & academic success: A study of academically underprepared students in the second semester

The globalization of higher education and changing demographics of the collegiate classroom necessitate the ability for students to regulate their own feelings, recognize others’ emotions, solve real-world problems, communicate effectively across cultures, build relationships, and ultimately manage stress. This emotional intelligence is especially true in the growing population of academically underprepared students. Through analysis of correlations between emotional intelligence and academic success factors – semester and cumulative GPAs, persistence data, as well as demographic variables, this study closes the gap in the literature focused on this specific student population and contributes to the field of global leadership in practice within higher education. This dissertation argues that emotional intelligence is a critical leadership trait, skill and practice regardless of capacity or field. Likewise, the study persists that emotional intelligence is a skill necessary for academically underprepared students to develop early on in their educational careers and it is an aspect directly correlated to the success of global leaders inside and outside of the university setting.
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Dr. Thomas Lawrence , 2017

Followership in a Global Context: Examining the Relationship between Chinese National Culture and Follower Role Orientation

Followership is an emergent field of study dedicated to the contributions of followers to the processes and outcomes of leadership. The discipline privileges followers at the center of theory development and acknowledges their central role as causal agents. The study of followership has largely been a phenomenon constrained to the U.S. Thus, the role of national culture remains unexplored. Drawing from Uhl-Bien et al.’s (2014) reversing the lens theory of followership and Hofstede’s (2010) national culture dimensions, this study examined the relationship between national culture and follower role orientation, including the moderating effects of considerate leadership, among Chinese adults living and working throughout mainland China. Using a survey design, data was collected from 178 Chinese workers using three validated instruments. Relationships between the concepts of study were explored using descriptive inferential statistics, including hierarchical linear regression. The findings support Uhl-Bien et al.’s contention that leadership outcomes result from the interactive product of follower behavior, guided by implicit following schema, and the concomitant response by leaders to deliberate influence attempts. Analysis revealed Hofstede’s dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivism contributed to the development of follower’s underlying role schema and belief in the co-production of leadership. The study also confirmed the fundamental role of context in the development of follower beliefs. Leader consideration acted as a moderator of power distance in a sub-set of the sample (first-level supervisors) and contributed the greatest effect in the predictive model. This dissertation contributes to the field of global leadership by expanding knowledge of followership, testing the validity of followership theory beyond the U.S., and supporting organizational development in culturally heterogeneous contexts.
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Dr. Julia Porter , 2017

Factors that Support Student Success and Their Perceptions of Success: Lessons from a Scottish University

In this qualitative study, a case study approach was utilized in order to explore the factors that contribute to student success as well as students’ own perceptions of success at Abertay University in Dundee, Scotland. Twelve participants were interviewed including seven students who were had passed all of their courses and were on track to graduate and five faculty members that had experience in teaching successful students. This study particularly focuses on trait theory and how the Big Five contribute to student success as well. The study identified the themes that contributed to Scottish student success, which were: (1) the ability to find employment following graduation, (2) support from others, (3) academic achievement, (4) acquiring new skills, and (5) personal dedication to their studies and Abertay University. Additionally, through the analysis of the data and in understanding the themes, it was indicated that the traits most exhibited by those who found success at Abertay University were extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
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Dr. Alicia Wireman , 2017

International Students and U.S. Faculty in Complex Educational Environments: Exploring the Need for Global Leadership in the Classroom. A Case Study

Global leadership scholars have attempted to understand global leadership in a variety of contexts. However, the complex environment of the classroom in higher education is an area that has not been explored. Classrooms in higher education are becoming more complex due to their complexity and uncertain nature, thus creating situations where global leadership is necessary. The purpose of this case study was to determine a need for global leadership in the classroom by exploring perceptions of instructors’ leadership behaviors and communication apprehension in the complex classroom. The study is an exploratory embedded single-case of instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors at a private institution of higher education. Data collection included institutional documents, surveys, and focus groups. The case’s data included an analysis of institutional documents as well as a survey with faculty regarding their communication apprehension and leadership behaviors when interacting with international students in the complex classroom. The survey used the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) to examine instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors when interacting with international students in the classroom. Then, a follow-up focus group with faculty was used to understand their survey responses. Finally, the case’s data collection included a focus group with international students, which aimed to explore their perceptions of instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors. The findings of the study (a) indicated leadership behaviors that are important for instructors in higher education, (b) communicated international students’ needs for instructors’ leadership behaviors, and (c) focused on the need to train and develop instructors to be global leaders.
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2016

Dr. Charles Dunn , 2016

The Real Deal: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Authentic Global Leaders within International Cooperative Organizations

The purpose of the current phenomenological study was to understand the developmental experiences of authentic leaders by documenting their own stories of how they view their growth into a successful global leader. The study used three overarching research questions: (1) How do leaders within international cooperatives describe their lived experiences that contributed to their development into successful and authentic global leaders? (2) How do cooperative leaders explain how they apply/use the principle of stewardship on a daily basis? (3) What experiences are described as challenges in the application of authentic leadership? Using these overarching questions as a guide, the current study posed interview questions that explore participants’ experiences in developing into an authentic leader. The study also explored how operating in a global environment has influenced their ability to be authentic in their leadership. Additionally, interview questions explored the context of authentic leadership and global leadership within cooperative organizations and how the role of being a steward for the organization influences their leadership style. The theoretical framework for the study was guided by global leadership theory, authentic leadership theory, and stewardship theory. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were used to select study participants who are senior leaders within international cooperative organizations. Data was collected through the use of semi-structured interviews, and the interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using NVivo qualitative analysis software. The information collected and subsequent analysis may help future cooperative leaders develop into successful and authentic global leaders, as well as help close the gap in the literature on leadership within international cooperatives. The research findings led to the development of five themes surrounding the phenomenon of developing into an authentic leader within an international cooperative: (1) leading successfully, (2) leading globally, (3) developing authentically, (4) meeting the leadership challenge, and (5) cooperative appeal.
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Dr. Stephen Young , 2016

Follower Perceptions of Frequent Leadership Rotations: A Sequential Explanatory Study

Current leadership study is well established within the context of developing leaders in the global organization through leadership development initiatives to include leadership rotational programs. Leadership rotational programs are an accepted practice to develop the skills of global leaders. Studies have shown the positive results that these strategies can produce within the global organization and towards the development of global leaders’ skills. Empirical research has focused on the advantages to the leader but has failed to fully identify the potential consequences to the follower within the organization. This study addresses the follower perceptions and feelings towards leadership rotations that are not currently found in current leadership research and literature. The purpose of this sequential explanatory study was twofold. First, this study aimed to discover the types of followers found in the global organization. Second, and the primary focus of this research was to explore the perceptions of followers when subjected to rotating leadership. This exploration fully identifies the effect of the leadership rotation phenomenon and addresses the research question: How do differing types of followers within complex adaptive systems of a global organization experience frequent leadership rotations? A two-phase, sequential explanatory design was used to gather the experiences of the organizational follower through a non-experimental survey, semi-structured interviews, and a phenomenological analysis of collected data. Followers were first classified in to one of five follower types. Participants from each follower were then interviewed. An interview protocol was followed and participant responses were analyzed to develop themes related to the phenomenon of rotating leadership. The outcomes of this study offer four conclusions related to the followers in the global organization and how these individuals perceive rotating leadership. This research advances the current understanding of the relationship between the leader and follower and offers new insight into how the common leadership development practice of rotating leaders within the organization affects both the global organization and the organizational follower.
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2015

Dr. Joyce Parks, 2015

Preparing Global Citizens for the 21st Century: Examining the Intercultural Competence of Study Abroad Students

In today’s rapidly changing global society, college graduates will need to develop skills that will prepare them for the 21st century. More importantly, intercultural skills that will be beneficial in terms of helping students become global citizens and having the ability to compete for jobs in a global workforce. This study examines the impact short-term study abroad programs have on the intercultural competence of students. Additionally, the study provides strategies to increase the intercultural competence of students to assure students gain the following intercultural abilities; skills, awareness, knowledge, and attitudes which are skills that are necessary to interact effectively with individuals from diverse backgrounds. An explanatory quantitative correlational research design was utilized for the study and a sample size of 125 students from a university in the Midwest. The Accessing Intercultural Competence (AIC) section 7 was utilized to measure the intercultural competence of study abroad students to determine if the students were developing intercultural competence. The independent sample t test was used and indicated a significant difference in the intercultural competence of students who studied abroad and students who did not study abroad. The implications of the findings are beneficial to study abroad administrators and higher education institutions by providing suggestions and improvements for short-term study abroad programs. The study is also an important contribution to the literature in terms of the impact study abroad programs have on the intercultural competence students who travels abroad.
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Dr. Frank Banfill , 2015

Multiple Case Studies in Effective Africa Leadership: A Study of the Leadership Behaviors of Effective Local Church Pastors in the Africa Inland Church Tanzania Mara and Ukerewe Diocese

This study explores the behaviors of effective local Christian church pastors in Tanzania, East Africa and it addresses gaps in the current knowledge related to African religious leadership, leadership theory in the African context, leadership across African cultures, and African leadership in relationship to followership. A qualitative research method using a multiple case study design was employed to provide an understanding of effective African pastors as local leaders who contribute to African social welfare. Effective pastor leaders with a demonstrated record of numerically growing their churches while also conducting development projects for the betterment of local communities were interviewed, along with focus groups of members from their congregations. Additional data were gathered through observations and by reviewing documents. Results of transformational leadership theory surveys (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-MLQ) completed by Tanzanian pastors are also presented. The study found that effective Tanzanian pastors demonstrated behaviors consistent with transformational leadership behaviors, improved the lives of parishioners and community members, and were instrumental in growing the numerical membership and financial base of their churches. The study identified the activities taken by effective pastors when they began their tenures, as well as the ongoing and decision-making/problem resolution activities throughout their tenures.
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Dr. Joseph Lestrange , 2015

Values Based Leadership 2.0: A Multi Method Study Toward the Development of a Theoretical Framework for Global Leaders

The continuously expanding and rapid pace of globalization has created a climate of ambiguity, uncertainty and change as businesses struggle to find new paradigms of leadership that can be used cross culturally; mainly because many previously tried and tested approaches such as transactional leadership no longer seem effective in the global context (Robinson & Harvey, 2008). This multi-method research study explored whether or not Values Based Leadership (VBL) is an appropriate leadership framework to assist global leaders in navigating the multiplicity, interdependence, ambiguity and flux of today’s global leadership environment. Based on research gaps discovered during the literature review, this study developed a definitive theoretical framework for VBL in the context of global leadership that distinguishes it from other confused and/or overlapping theories. The methodology consisted of an integrative literature review and subsequent interviews conducted in the phenomenological discipline. Through the process of inductive, thematic analysis; a total of 10 themes emerged based on the participants’ “lived experience.” These themes were: Creates a Positive Organizational Valance by Inspiring Followers and Maintaining Presence, Empowers Others Through Active Follower Engagement, Displays Empathy, Respect & Genuine Caring for Others, Projects Legitimacy by Building Relationships on Trust, Encourages a Learning Organization, Possesses Strong Character, Develops a Strategic Vision & Focuses Resources Accordingly, Strives for Organizational Excellence, Demonstrates Humility & Stewardship, and Promotes Transparency by Effectively Communicating with Followers. This new VBL framework provides insight into universally endorsed leadership values held by today’s global leaders operating across multiple world cultures and contexts. If developed further, the research suggests that this framework could provide a strong foundation to assist global leaders in navigating the multiplicity, interdependence, ambiguity and flux found it today’s modern global business environment.
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Dr. Lisa Kindred , 2015

Leadership Fit as a Condition for Meaningful Work: A Study of Iraqi-Born Employees

In this qualitative study a phenomenological approach was utilized to explore the experiences and perceptions of meaningful work for Iraqi refugees in South Bend, Indiana. The central research question examined how the participants constructed meaningful work. This study had a particular focus on the characteristics associated with leadership fit and how leadership fit contributed to perceptions of meaningful work. The research procedure consisted of fifteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed five overarching themes that contributed to perceptions of meaningful work: 1) having an impact, 2) relationships with others, 3) distinguished from others, 4) correspondence with oneself, and 5) environmental correspondence. While leadership fit did not emerge as a central issue, the participants’ preferred way of relating with a leader was revealed. This study contributes to the growing literature on meaningful work by strengthening a theoretical model and expanding the model with the inclusion of a new pathway to meaningful work. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of applying person-environment fit models with current meaningful work theory. Finally, this study provides practical application for refugee relocation agencies and employers based on the findings and offers suggestions for future meaningful work research.
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Dr. Brett Whitaker , 2015

An Analysis of the Academic Disciplinary Development of Global Leadership Education

This research examined the development of global leadership degree granting programs within higher education. This research utilized an organizing framework of academic disciplinary development, and drew upon current theoretical literature describing the nature of global leadership. The two stated purposes of this study were, “to examine the field of global leadership education as compared against established criteria of academic disciplines”, and “to describe the manifestation of global leadership education in three institutions of higher education.” A qualitative, multiple case study approach was utilized in this research. Inductive reasoning formed the basis for inquiry, as this research was exploratory and attempted to describe the nature and history of several degree granting programs. Rigorous qualitative methods were employed, utilizing multiple data sources to gather information and triangulate understanding of each case institution. Within-case and cross-case analysis was conducted to develop emergent themes, and this analysis was augmented through the use of a qualitative analysis software. Verification was achieved through the use of member checking, journaling, and a peer-debrief. Themes emerged for each case institution, and were organized into themes related to the emergence of each program, and themes related to program outcomes. Within the cross-case analysis, three themes emerged: the pragmatic and politically driven emergence and development of programs, the tendency for global leadership programs to be tied to a related disciplinary area and that area to be more strongly represented in the curriculum, and a value orientation among the outcomes of each program. Each of these themes was supported by relevant data, quotes, and observations. The findings of this study support the notion that while global leadership has indeed begun to emerge within higher education, it remains somewhat underdeveloped. Some elements of disciplinary development are present, but most are not. Educators, administrators, and ultimately, students, stand to benefit from rigorous inquiry into the nature of how global leadership is being manifested in higher education. Comprehensively describing the current state of the discipline, will allow program stewards to more intentionally design programs that align with current theoretical and empirical scholarship of global leadership. This research provides the beginning point of that scholarship.
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2014

Dr. Paul Hayes, 2014

Virtual Environmental Factors and Leading Global Virtual Teams

This correlative study focuses on the leaders of global virtual teams and determines if there is a comparative advantage in using 3D avatar-based collaborative environments instead of more traditional 2D audio and video teleconferencing environments in terms of fostering engaging environments that lead to improved leader and member interaction. Sixty freshman student volunteers from random Southeastern and Central Florida colleges collaborated in face-to-face and virtual reality environments. The participants were comprised of individuals born in 13 different countries, including the USA. Six participants acted in the role of leader and 24 participants acting in the role of subordination. Each group was comprised of six, five-member teams. The sample consisted of 46 males and 14 females ranging in age from 18 to 30 years old. The study suggests face-to-face participants perceived higher, statistically significant levels of engagement than the teams using Second Life. No statistically significant difference was found between reported levels of leader-member exchange (LMX) quality for either the members of Face-to-Face collaboration or the members of Second Life collaboration. There was no statistically significant difference between composite ratings of LMX relationship quality with measures of engagement as provided by the ITC Sense of Presence Inventory. All employees need training to maximize virtual team collaboration efforts in avatar-based collaboration to ensure collaboration focuses on solving problems and not just re-creating “real world” problems in a virtual world or computer mediated environment.
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