“Nevertheless, She Persisted”: Exploring the Influence of Adversity on Black Women in Higher Education Senior Leadership
This dissertation explored the concept of adversity and the lived experiences of Black women in higher education senior leadership. Using phenomenology, this study specifically explored how adversity has led Black women to leadership serving in higher education senior leadership. Past literature shows that Black women leaders undergo extreme challenges, including limited role models, the concrete ceiling, double discrimination, and the intersectionality of racism and sexism, as well as tokenism. The current findings validate the literature as some of the more salient codes of adversity that emerged were challenges with identity: (a) cultural diversity and belonging, (b) discrimination such as racism, sexism, ageism and the intersection of these, (c) varying adverse childhood experiences [ACEs], (d) career discernment, (e) divorce and/or dissolving romantic relationships, (f) financial issues, and (g) health issues. Yet Black women are resilient and strong. Referred to as “superwomen,” Black women have been able to overcome countless odds to advance and become pioneers in their fields and reach advanced levels of educational attainment. The results of this study reveal that Black women use adversity as fuel to overcome crucible experiences, thus helping them develop the necessary skills to prepare them
for leadership. Their strength through adversity is driven by resilience. Resilience has manifested itself in many ways for the participants of this study, varying from motivation factors such as family and relationships, mentors, community support, self-care and nurturing, friendships and sisterhoods, as well as the support of cultural identity and diversity. The current findings grounded in the crucible leadership theory (Bennis & Thomas, 2002) support the notion that adverse crucible experiences shape Black women into leaders with emphasis on higher education senior leadership.
Courageous Followership in the United States and Japan: Examining the Role of Culture in Ideal Followership
Followership is a nascent yet emerging subject. An increasing number of scholars are recognizing the critical role of followers and that leadership cannot exist without followership. Most followership studies take place in the United States, which constrains knowledge growth on followership from a global perspective. Understanding regarding ideal followership has largely been limited to reflect Western values. One of the most popular propositions regarding ideal followership is the courageous followership concept developed by Ira Chaleff. Chaleff’s book on courageous followership has been published globally in six different languages, yet the argument that the concept represents ideal followership has not been explored outside of the United States. This study contains an examination of whether the belief that courageous followership represents ideal followership is shared between American and Japanese followers as the countries offer an interesting contrast in cultural values and can offer a non-Western perspective. Through a quasi-experimental mixed factor repeated measure design, analysis of variance with covariates revealed how followers from each country perceive courageous followership behaviors as ideal and how often these followers practice such behaviors. The results showed that American participants favored courageous followership as ideal form of followership more so compared to Japanese participants. American participants also
reported higher level of courageous followership behaviors in practice compared to Japanese participants—except for behaviors associated with the courage to take moral action. The study’s findings help advance global leadership by expanding knowledge
regarding followership from a global perspective, testing courageous followership concept in a non-Western context, and capturing how different followers from different cultures practice followership behaviors.
A Single Case Study Exploring Male Millennial Leaders’ Perceptions of Women as Leaders in a Large Mauritanian Organization
This study used a qualitative case study research design to explore male millennial leaders’ perceptions of women as leaders in large Mauritanian organizations. Transformational leadership theory and social dominance theory were used as the theoretical bases to guide the study. The study raises awareness about aspects of African women leaders through the eyes of the male, millennial leaders in a historically male-dominated society. Furthermore, the study provides data to enhance the understanding of local, regional, and global leaders who work to liberate female leaders through organizational development and gender equality, globally. Perceptions of male
leaders were explored to find out what can be done to change perceptions that may limit the possibilities for women to gain access to leadership roles in Mauritanian organizations.
Exploring Global Followership Phenomenon in Global Organizational Context: A Study of Global Followers Within Global Technology Companies
The purpose of the current phenomenological study was to explore the global followership phenomenon within a global organizational context, specifically within global technology organizations to understand the lived experiences of global followers and how they develop their global followership behaviors. The present study used three overarching research questions to explore lived experiences of global followers: (1) How do global followers at global technology organizations describe their lived experiences that help them develop global followership behaviors? (2) How do global followers describe how global organizational context plays a role in global followership development processes? (3) How does global followers’ national culture shapes their global followership behaviors? In light of these research questions, the researcher developed open-ended interview questions that explored participants’ experiences of development of global followership behaviors. The interview questions scrutinized the experiences of global followers, the influence of global organizational context, and the influence of culture on their behaviors. The theoretical framework guided the study was followership
theory and the concept of global followership. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling strategies were used to recruit participants. After selecting individuals who meet the initial criteria, the researcher emailed screening questions to selected individuals and collected self-reported information. Based on their responses to screening questions, individuals who self-reported that they support and practice freely, constructively, and courageously contributing to leadership processes as well as supporting and practicing constructively opposing their leaders’ decisions by voicing their concerns and opinions against their leaders when they see necessary to enhance leadership processes acknowledged as global followers and selected as participants. Data were collected through the use of semi-structured interviews and the interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using NVivo 12 qualitative analysis software. Data analysis led to the development of four core themes that explained the experiences of global followers and their development of effective global followership behaviors: (1) following effectively, (2) following globally, (3) developing continuously, and (4) managing challenges. The current study’s results are consistent with Tolstikov-Mast’s (2016)’s assertions and confirm global followership concept is different than followership in domestic contexts due to the complexities of global environment. The findings of the present study may help future global followers that they could learn the developmental pathways presented by the participants and try to train to be effective global followers and contribute to co-construction of global leadership processes in their organizations. Global leaders could also learn from findings of this study and try to foster global followers that would help them to enhance global leadership outcomes. Global organizations could use the findings of the present study to develop specific global followership development activities or trainings in order to develop effective global followers and enhance global leadership outcomes in their organizations.
An Exploration of Perceptions, Internal Mechanisms and External Forces that may Influence Ethical Decision Making
This study sought to explore the underlying perceptions, internal mechanisms, and external forces that may influence the ethical decision-making process of middle managers in a multinational organization. A qualitative phenomenological research approach was undertaken as it provided the best opportunity to develop a common description from participants’ lived experiences that highlighted ‘what’ the participants experienced and ‘how’ they experienced it. This study contributes to the field of global leadership studies by providing an understanding of how global managers perceive an ethical issue, the ways in which they construct their own ethical reality, and how they explain the complexity of their ethical reasoning. In addition, this study shows the value in developing an ethics training program for multinational organizations in order to develop better cross-cultural understanding. Ultimately, this can result in improving the effectiveness of managers’ ethical reasoning skills through a learning environment that is experience-based and involves problem-solving activities and collaboration.
Exploring Improvisation: The Human Element of Decisions Made by Executives in States of Complexity within Consulting Firms
The purpose of this research is to use transcendental phenomenology to explore the lived experiences and events of executives, and how improvisation is experienced when decisions are made in states of complexity within a consulting firm. The central research topic of this doctoral study focuses on executives in moments of complexity. The stated phenomenological method was engaged to explore the lived experiences of management and technology consulting firm executives on how they experience improvisation when making decisions in states of complexity. To guide this study, a theoretical framework consisting of complexity leadership theory, human elements of decisions, and improvisation was developed. Findings from this study highlighted five core themes that emerged from the phenomenon:(1) leading through complexity, (2) using improvisation, (3) leading with no data, (4) leading with only data, and (5) mixing humans and
data. For academics and practitioners, the data gathered from this research creates an essence of the experience of how improvisation is experienced in complexity by executives in a consulting firm. The author hopes that this research in some way, will assist current and future executives to better understand the value of improvisation and how it can be applied successfully to lead in the complexities of the global business landscape.
Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment in a Multinational Organization: The Partial Mediating Role of Cultural Intelligence
Organizations are undergoing unprecedented change, driven mainly by cost effectiveness and globalization. These changes leave organizations seeking a new type of leader, one who can manage a global workforce, navigate the impact of globalization, and foster employee organizational commitment. Through the grounding of transformational leadership theory, the present study examines the partial mediating relationship of cultural intelligence on the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational
commitment in an intercultural context. The current study operationalized concepts through three surveys: multifactor leadership questionnaire form-5X (MLQ Form-5X), three-component model commitment survey (TCM), cultural intelligence survey (CQS). Using a sample of 102 full-time professionals who had a geographically dispersed intercultural relationship with their manager provides evidence that cultural intelligence partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and employee normative commitment. Additionally, this study evidenced that cultural intelligence does not partially mediate the relationships between transformational leadership style and affective or continuance commitment. Supplemental analyses supported that a manager’s
cultural intelligence had a significant association with their demonstration of transformational leadership style and an employee’s level of affective and normative commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of this study clarify the interactions between cultural intelligence, transformational leadership, and organization commitment addressing a growing concern surrounding how intercultural leaders effectively manage complexity emanating from geographic dispersion, multiculturalism, and organizational cultural diversity; furthering the competencies of effective global leaders.
Exploring the Relationship of Predispositions Before and During the College Experience, Including Study Abroad, Which May Impact Intercultural Competence of University Students
With the continued globalization of the workforce today, it is becoming more and more important for today’s workers to be globally competent. For workers to be globally competent, it is essential that they gain the necessary skills while completing their college education. To gain these competencies, institutions of higher education need to produce graduates with high intercultural competence. Impact of intercultural competence has to be acquired through specific formal and informal experience for students to have the greatest gains during their college experience. These experiences actually begin before college and continue during their time in college. While literature has long stated that study abroad positively impacts intercultural competence, that alone may not be the best or only way to positively impact intercultural competence. This study explores the impact of precollege characteristics, college experiences, and study abroad on students’ intercultural competence at a rural, public, 4-year liberal arts university. To assess this impact of intercultural competence, students were asked to answer a demographic survey capturing the data on precollege characteristics and the college experience, as well as a survey instrument assessing intercultural competence.
The Impacts of Business Curriculum Internationalization on Student Completion and Success in Ohio Community Colleges
The purpose of this global leadership study was to investigate the impact community college business curriculum internationalization has on the key components of the Ohio State Share of Instruction (SSI) funding formula. This analysis should assist institutional decision-makers in determining whether or not to incorporate such initiatives at their schools as many accrediting bodies are placing greater emphasis on student success and numerous states are tying public funding to completion rates. Starting in Fiscal Year 2014, the state of Ohio began implementing a new performance-based formula that allocates funding to universities and colleges based on student success instead of enrollment. As community colleges across the state work to adjust to the new formula, many are considering novel methods to expand their resource base through curriculum internationalization. This study sought to determine the existence and degree of a quantitative relationship between business curriculum internationalization and student course completions, program and certificate completions, and success points within the Ohio SSI funding model. Ultimately, the results of this inquiry indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the variables, primarily due to a lack of distinctive differences between the various Ohio community colleges in terms of their degrees of business curriculum internationalization.
A Phenomenological Study: the Lived Experiences of Women Who Have Achieved CEO Positions in Four-Year Higher Education Institutions
Progress has been made with women gaining more employment opportunity through the years in higher education. The progress has been seen in the lower positions; but the higher a woman climbs in four-year higher education institutions, the fewer positions she will find open to her gender. Notably, gender inequity still exists in higher education leadership and especially in the top leadership positions in this sector. Until 2016, the accepted remedy for this gender equity issue was to create a pipeline for more women to be qualified and ready to flow into the openings of the chief executive officer (CEO) position of four-year higher education institutions as they became available (American Council of Education, 2016). The American Council of Education (ACE) in 2016 declared the pipeline remedy a myth (2016). With that declaration, the American Council of Education stated that there was a need for more research on pathways women can take to successfully reach the top CEO positions in higher education (2016). The purpose of this study was to seek to understand the phenomenon of how women have overcome barriers and secured the presidency in colleges and universities (ACE, 2016). The goal of this phenomenological study was to determine the pathway that these women CEOs took and to answer the call for more research on the pathways of how more women can obtain the position of CEO. It comes at a time when there is possibly the greatest climate that is conducive for women to achieve positions that have seldom been open to them in past history. The study was guided by research by Susan Madsen (2008) on the lived experiences of women university CEOs that is now considered the seminal work in the arena of higher education leadership and gender inequity.
Exploring Antecedence of Organizational Success for Bicultural Female Leaders
Global leadership research arose out of a need for organizations to develop individuals who can successfully manage people, markets and strategies globally (Mendenhall, et al., 2013). As the field is relatively new, there is gap in global leadership literature in understanding the antecedents of success of global leaders, and specifically bicultural global female leaders, in multi-cultural organizational environments. In addition, views from a power dynamic of critical theory has not been fully explored.
As a result of this gap in the literature, this dissertation study explored the intersectionality of success, gender and biculturalism to understand, through the voice and lived experiences of bicultural female leaders, how they assign meaning to the attainment of organizational success in global healthcare leadership positions in order to encourage organizational change. Utilizing the phenomenological van Kaam 8-step method of data analysis (Moustakas, 1994), this study identified five themes related to how global leadership competencies, the meaning of success, and organizational influencers impact bicultural female global leader success. The five themes identified include (a) successful global leadership organizational competencies (b) meaning of success (c) intersection of gender and biculturalism on organizational success (d) organizational facilitators of success for bicultural global female leaders and (e) organizational inhibitors of success that require change. This study added unique contributions in understanding (a) the shared meaning of success for bicultural global female leaders across various cultural groups as told through their voice, (b) how gender and biculturalism intersect to inform their experience as global leaders, specifically in empowering them to overcome historical biases that exist in organizations, and (c) actions organizations can do to help more bicultural women become global leaders. In addition to the unique contributions, findings related to successful global competencies, transformational leadership characteristics, and female leaders’ role in assisting with equal opportunities correspond with empirical and theoretical research on the success of global bicultural female leaders.
Workplace Longevity and The Lived Experiences of Senior Leaders’ Perceptions of Millennial Job Satisfaction: A Multigenerational Study of the Dutch Caribbean Financial Sector
The topic of workplace longevity includes a vast area of scholarly writing relating to the themes of organizational success, job satisfaction, work commitment, effective managerial leadership, employee engagement, workforce-retention strategies, and cultural influences on work habits. The focus of this exploration is to discover how job satisfaction impacts the tenure of senior leaders and to uncover the association of emerging trends using a generational perspective that directly derives from senior leaders’ lived experiences. The objective was to solicit responses about the concepts affecting employees’ self-identified organizational motives, thus explaining an employees’ realization, awareness, and understanding of the components that factor into their choice of whether to stay or leave a company. Herzberg’s (1978) motivation theory was introduced and applied to this study as the theoretical framework. This theory explored the hygiene factors and motivator factors that cause job satisfaction or job dissatisfaction. Seven themes emerged from this qualitative transcendental phenomenological research study: (a) millennials, (b) training and development, (c) mentality shift, (d) corporate culture, (e) workplace longevity, (f) change and adaptability, and (g) communication. The research study was promulgated upon a global platform and thus includes a discussion of global implications and a new definition of global leadership. Global leaders in the present work climate are charged with managing diverse populations of employees from assorted cultures, with a mixture of mind-sets, and with a comprehensive collection of ideals, beliefs, values, and principles. This research explored global leadership through the lens of innovation and a team-oriented perspective.
Resilience and Intercultural Competence: Examining the Relationship in Community College Transformational Leaders
The main purpose of the study was to determine if there was a correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders at Ivy Tech Community College. Kouzes and Posner’s Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership was used to establish leaders’ transformation leadership qualities; the Connor-Davidson CD-RISC was used to assess leaders’ resilience, and Fantini’s Assessment of Intercultural Competence (YOGA Form) was used to measure leaders’ intercultural competence. The study population included leaders in supervisor roles from two regions within Ivy Tech Community College. The findings of the study indicate there was no significant correlation between resilience and intercultural competence in transformational leaders.
Emotional intelligence & academic success: A study of academically underprepared students in the second semester
The globalization of higher education and changing demographics of the collegiate classroom necessitate the ability for students to regulate their own feelings, recognize others’ emotions, solve real-world problems, communicate effectively across cultures, build relationships, and ultimately manage stress. This emotional intelligence is especially true in the growing population of academically underprepared students. Through analysis of correlations between emotional intelligence and academic success factors – semester and cumulative GPAs, persistence data, as well as demographic variables, this study closes the gap in the literature focused on this specific student population and contributes to the field of global leadership in practice within higher education. This dissertation argues that emotional intelligence is a critical leadership trait, skill and practice regardless of capacity or field. Likewise, the study persists that emotional intelligence is a skill necessary for academically underprepared students to develop early on in their educational careers and it is an aspect directly correlated to the success of global leaders inside and outside of the university setting.
Followership in a Global Context: Examining the Relationship between Chinese National Culture and Follower Role Orientation
Followership is an emergent field of study dedicated to the contributions of followers to the processes and outcomes of leadership. The discipline privileges followers at the center of theory development and acknowledges their central role as causal agents. The study of followership has largely been a phenomenon constrained to the U.S. Thus, the role of national culture remains unexplored. Drawing from Uhl-Bien et al.’s (2014) reversing the lens theory of followership and Hofstede’s (2010) national culture dimensions, this study examined the relationship between national culture and follower role orientation, including the moderating effects of considerate leadership, among Chinese adults living and working throughout mainland China. Using a survey design, data was collected from 178 Chinese workers using three validated instruments. Relationships between the concepts of study were explored using descriptive inferential statistics, including hierarchical linear regression. The findings support Uhl-Bien et al.’s contention that leadership outcomes result from the interactive product of follower behavior, guided by implicit following schema, and the concomitant response by leaders to deliberate influence attempts. Analysis revealed Hofstede’s dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and collectivism contributed to the development of follower’s underlying role schema and belief in the co-production of leadership. The study also confirmed the fundamental role of context in the development of follower beliefs. Leader consideration acted as a moderator of power distance in a sub-set of the sample (first-level supervisors) and contributed the greatest effect in the predictive model. This dissertation contributes to the field of global leadership by expanding knowledge of followership, testing the validity of followership theory beyond the U.S., and supporting organizational development in culturally heterogeneous contexts.
Factors that Support Student Success and Their Perceptions of Success: Lessons from a Scottish University
In this qualitative study, a case study approach was utilized in order to explore the factors that contribute to student success as well as students’ own perceptions of success at Abertay University in Dundee, Scotland. Twelve participants were interviewed including seven students who were had passed all of their courses and were on track to graduate and five faculty members that had experience in teaching successful students. This study particularly focuses on trait theory and how the Big Five contribute to student success as well. The study identified the themes that contributed to Scottish student success, which were: (1) the ability to find employment following graduation, (2) support from others, (3) academic achievement, (4) acquiring new skills, and (5) personal dedication to their studies and Abertay University. Additionally, through the analysis of the data and in understanding the themes, it was indicated that the traits most exhibited by those who found success at Abertay University were extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience.
International Students and U.S. Faculty in Complex Educational Environments: Exploring the Need for Global Leadership in the Classroom. A Case Study
“Global leadership scholars have attempted to understand global leadership in a variety of contexts. However, the complex environment of the classroom in higher education is an area that has not been explored. Classrooms in higher education are becoming more complex due to their complexity and uncertain nature, thus creating situations where global leadership is necessary. The purpose of this case study was to determine a need for global leadership in the classroom by exploring perceptions of instructors’ leadership behaviors and communication apprehension in the complex classroom. The study is an exploratory embedded single-case of instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors at a private institution of higher education. Data collection included institutional documents, surveys, and focus groups. The case’s data included an analysis of institutional documents as well as a survey with faculty regarding their communication apprehension and leadership behaviors when interacting with international students in the complex classroom. The survey used the Personal Report of Intercultural Communication Apprehension (PRICA) and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) to examine instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors when interacting with international students in the classroom. Then, a follow-up focus group with faculty was used to understand their survey responses. Finally, the case’s data collection included a focus group with international students, which aimed to explore their perceptions of instructors’ communication apprehension and leadership behaviors. The findings of the study (a) indicated leadership behaviors that are important for instructors in higher education, (b) communicated international students’ needs for instructors’ leadership behaviors, and (c) focused on the need to train and develop instructors to be global leaders.”
The Real Deal: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Authentic Global Leaders within International Cooperative Organizations
The purpose of the current phenomenological study was to understand the developmental experiences of authentic leaders by documenting their own stories of how they view their growth into a successful global leader. The study used three overarching research questions: (1) How do leaders within international cooperatives describe their lived experiences that contributed to their development into successful and authentic global leaders? (2) How do cooperative leaders explain how they apply/use the principle of stewardship on a daily basis? (3) What experiences are described as challenges in the application of authentic leadership? Using these overarching questions as a guide, the current study posed interview questions that explore participants’ experiences in developing into an authentic leader. The study also explored how operating in a global environment has influenced their ability to be authentic in their leadership. Additionally, interview questions explored the context of authentic leadership and global leadership within cooperative organizations and how the role of being a steward for the organization influences their leadership style.
The theoretical framework for the study was guided by global leadership theory, authentic leadership theory, and stewardship theory. Purposeful sampling and snowball sampling were used to select study participants who are senior leaders within international cooperative organizations. Data was collected through the use of semi-structured interviews, and the interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using NVivo qualitative analysis software. The information collected and subsequent analysis may help future cooperative leaders develop into successful and authentic global leaders, as well as help close the gap in the literature on leadership within international cooperatives. The research findings led to the development of five themes surrounding the phenomenon of developing into an authentic leader within an international cooperative: (1) leading successfully, (2) leading globally, (3) developing authentically, (4) meeting the leadership challenge, and (5) cooperative appeal.
Follower Perceptions of Frequent Leadership Rotations: A Sequential Explanatory Study
Current leadership study is well established within the context of developing leaders in the global organization through leadership development initiatives to include leadership rotational programs. Leadership rotational programs are an accepted practice to develop the skills of global leaders. Studies have shown the positive results that these strategies can produce within the global organization and towards the development of global leaders’ skills. Empirical research has focused on the advantages to the leader but has failed to fully identify the potential consequences to the follower within the organization. This study addresses the follower perceptions and feelings towards leadership rotations that are not currently found in current leadership research and literature.
The purpose of this sequential explanatory study was twofold. First, this study aimed to discover the types of followers found in the global organization. Second, and the primary focus of this research was to explore the perceptions of followers when subjected to rotating leadership. This exploration fully identifies the effect of the leadership rotation phenomenon and addresses the research question: How do differing types of followers within complex adaptive systems of a global organization experience frequent leadership rotations?
A two-phase, sequential explanatory design was used to gather the experiences of the organizational follower through a non-experimental survey, semi-structured interviews, and a phenomenological analysis of collected data. Followers were first classified in to one of five follower types. Participants from each follower were then interviewed. An interview protocol was followed and participant responses were analyzed to develop themes related to the phenomenon of rotating leadership.
The outcomes of this study offer four conclusions related to the followers in the global organization and how these individuals perceive rotating leadership. This research advances the current understanding of the relationship between the leader and follower and offers new insight into how the common leadership development practice of rotating leaders within the organization affects both the global organization and the organizational follower.
Multiple case studies in effective Africa leadership: A study of the leadership behaviors of effective local church pastors in the Africa inland church Tanzania Mara and Ukerewe diocese
This study explores the behaviors of effective local Christian church pastors in Tanzania, East Africa and it addresses gaps in the current knowledge related to African religious leadership, leadership theory in the African context, leadership across African cultures, and African leadership in relationship to followership. A qualitative research method using a multiple case study design was employed to provide an understanding of effective African pastors as local leaders who contribute to African social welfare. Effective pastor leaders with a demonstrated record of numerically growing their churches while also conducting development projects for the betterment of local communities were interviewed, along with focus groups of members from their congregations. Additional data were gathered through observations and by reviewing documents. Results of transformational leadership theory surveys (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-MLQ) completed by Tanzanian pastors are also presented. The study found that effective Tanzanian pastors demonstrated behaviors consistent with transformational leadership behaviors, improved the lives of parishioners and community members, and were instrumental in growing the numerical membership and financial base of their churches. The study identified the activities taken by effective pastors when they began their tenures, as well as the ongoing and decision-making/problem resolution activities throughout their tenures.
Values Based Leadership 2.0: A Multi Method Study Toward The Development Of A Theoretical Framework For Global Leaders
The continuously expanding and rapid pace of globalization has created a climate of ambiguity, uncertainty and change as businesses struggle to find new paradigms of leadership that can be used cross culturally; mainly because many previously tried and tested approaches such as transactional leadership no longer seem effective in the global context (Robinson & Harvey, 2008). This multi-method research study explored whether or not Values Based Leadership (VBL) is an appropriate leadership framework to assist global leaders in navigating the multiplicity, interdependence, ambiguity and flux of today’s global leadership environment. Based on research gaps discovered during the literature review, this study developed a definitive theoretical framework for VBL in the context of global leadership that distinguishes it from other confused and/or overlapping theories. The methodology consisted of an integrative literature review and subsequent interviews conducted in the phenomenological discipline. Through the process of inductive, thematic analysis; a total of 10 themes emerged based on the participants’ “lived experience.” These themes were: Creates a Positive Organizational Valance by Inspiring Followers and Maintaining Presence, Empowers Others Through Active Follower Engagement, Displays Empathy, Respect & Genuine Caring for Others, Projects Legitimacy by Building Relationships on Trust, Encourages a Learning Organization, Possesses Strong Character, Develops a Strategic Vision & Focuses Resources Accordingly, Strives for Organizational Excellence, Demonstrates Humility & Stewardship, and Promotes Transparency by Effectively Communicating with Followers. This new VBL framework provides insight into universally endorsed leadership values held by today’s global leaders operating across multiple world cultures and contexts. If developed further, the research suggests that this framework could provide a strong foundation to assist global leaders in navigating the multiplicity, interdependence, ambiguity and flux found it today’s modern global business environment.
Leadership Fit as a Condition for Meaningful Work: A Study of Iraqi-Born Employees
In this qualitative study a phenomenological approach was utilized to explore the experiences and perceptions of meaningful work for Iraqi refugees in South Bend, Indiana. The central research question examined how the participants constructed meaningful work. This study had a particular focus on the characteristics associated with leadership fit and how leadership fit contributed to perceptions of meaningful work. The research procedure consisted of fifteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed five overarching themes that contributed to perceptions of meaningful work: 1) having an impact, 2) relationships with others, 3) distinguished from others, 4) correspondence with oneself, and 5) environmental correspondence. While leadership fit did not emerge as a central issue, the participants’ preferred way of relating with a leader was revealed. This study contributes to the growing literature on meaningful work by strengthening a theoretical model and expanding the model with the inclusion of a new pathway to meaningful work. Additionally, this study highlights the importance of applying person-environment fit models with current meaningful work theory. Finally, this study provides practical application for refugee relocation agencies and employers based on the findings and offers suggestions for future meaningful work research.
An Analysis of the Academic Disciplinary Development of Global Leadership Education
This research examined the development of global leadership degree granting programs within higher education. This research utilized an organizing framework of academic disciplinary development, and drew upon current theoretical literature describing the nature of global leadership. The two stated purposes of this study were, “to examine the field of global leadership education as compared against established criteria of academic disciplines”, and “to describe the manifestation of global leadership education in three institutions of higher education.”
A qualitative, multiple case study approach was utilized in this research. Inductive reasoning formed the basis for inquiry, as this research was exploratory and attempted to describe the nature and history of several degree granting programs. Rigorous qualitative methods were employed, utilizing multiple data sources to gather information and triangulate understanding of each case institution. Within-case and cross-case analysis was conducted to develop emergent themes, and this analysis was augmented through the use of a qualitative analysis software. Verification was achieved through the use of member checking, journaling, and a peer-debrief.
Themes emerged for each case institution, and were organized into themes related to the emergence of each program, and themes related to program outcomes. Within the cross-case analysis, three themes emerged: the pragmatic and politically driven emergence and development of programs, the tendency for global leadership programs to be tied to a related disciplinary area and that area to be more strongly represented in the curriculum, and a value orientation among the outcomes of each program. Each of these themes was supported by relevant data, quotes, and observations.
The findings of this study support the notion that while global leadership has indeed begun to emerge within higher education, it remains somewhat underdeveloped. Some elements of disciplinary development are present, but most are not. Educators, administrators, and ultimately, students, stand to benefit from rigorous inquiry into the nature of how global leadership is being manifested in higher education. Comprehensively describing the current state of the discipline, will allow program stewards to more intentionally design programs that align with current theoretical and empirical scholarship of global leadership. This research provides the beginning point of that scholarship.